File Name: theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior .zip
In psychology , the theory of planned behavior abbreviated TPB is a theory that links beliefs to behavior. The theory states that there are three core components, namely; attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, which together shape an individual's behavioral intentions. In turn, behavioral intention is assumed to be the most proximal determinant of human social behavior.
The theory of reasoned action TRA or ToRA aims to explain the relationship between attitudes and behaviors within human action. It is mainly used to predict how individuals will behave based on their pre-existing attitudes and behavioral intentions. An individual's decision to engage in a particular behavior is based on the outcomes the individual expects will come as a result of performing the behavior. Developed by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen in , the theory derived from previous research in social psychology , persuasion models, and attitude theories.
Fishbein's theories suggested a relationship between attitude and behaviors the A-B relationship. However, critics estimated that attitude theories were not proving to be good indicators of human behavior [ citation needed ]. The TRA was later revised and expanded by the two theorists in the following decades to overcome any discrepancies in the A-B relationship with the theory of planned behavior TPB and reasoned action approach RAA.
The theory is also used in communication discourse as a theory of understanding. The primary purpose of the TRA is to understand an individual's voluntary behavior by examining the underlying basic motivation to perform an action. According to the theory, intention to perform a certain behavior precedes the actual behavior. Behavioral intention is important to the theory because these intentions "are determined by attitudes to behaviors and subjective norms".
A positivistic approach to behavior research, TRA attempts to predict and explain one's intention of performing a certain behavior. The theory requires that behavior be clearly defined in terms of the four following concepts: Action e. According to TRA, attitudes are one of the key determinants of behavioral intention and refer to the way people feel towards a particular behavior.
Alternatively, if one believes that a certain behavior will lead to an undesirable or unfavorable outcome, then one is more likely to have a negative attitude towards the behavior. Behavioral belief allows us to understand people's motivations for their behavior in terms of the behavior's consequences.
Here, the behavioral belief is that studying for a month is equated with success, whereas not studying at all is associated with failure. The evaluation of the outcome refers to the way people perceive and evaluate the potential outcomes of a performed behavior. Conversely, a person may evaluate the outcome of quitting smoking cigarettes as negative if the behavioral belief is weight gain after smoking cessation.
Subjective norms are also one of the key determinants of behavioral intention and refer to the way perceptions of relevant groups or individuals such as family members, friends, and peers may affect one's performance of the behavior. Alternatively, if one's friends groups perceive that the behavior is bad, one will be less likely to engage in recreational drug use.
However, subjective norms also take into account people's motivation to comply with their social circle's views and perceptions , which vary depending on the situation and the individual's motivations. Normative beliefs touch on whether or not referent groups approve of the action.
There exists a direct correlation between normative beliefs and performance of the behavior. Usually, the more likely the referent groups will approve of the action, the more likely the individual perform will the act. Conversely, the less likely the referent groups will approve of the action, the less likely the individual will perform the act. Motivation to comply addresses the fact that individuals may or may not comply with social norms of the referent groups surrounding the act.
Depending on the individual's motivations in terms of adhering to social pressures , the individual will either succumb to the social pressures of performing the act if it is deemed acceptable, or alternatively will resist to the social pressures of performing the act if it is deemed unacceptable.
Behavioral intention is a function of both attitudes and subjective norms toward that behavior also known as the normative component. Attitudes being how strongly one holds the attitude toward the act and subjective norms being the social norms associated with the act.
The stronger the attitude and the more positive the subjective norm, the higher the A-B relationship should be. However, the attitudes and subjective norms are unlikely to be weighted equally in predicting behavior.
Depending on the individual and situation, these factors might have different impacts on behavioral intention , thus a weight is associated with each of these factors. The TRA theorists note that there are three conditions that can affect the relationship between behavioral intention and behavior.
The first condition is that "the measure of intention must correspond with respect to their levels of specificity". The second condition is that there must be "stability of intentions between time of measurement and performance of behavior". The third condition is "the degree to which carrying out the intention is under the volitional control of the individual". These conditions have to do with the transition from verbal responses to actual behavior.
While Fishbein and Ajzen developed the TRA within the field of health to understand health behaviors, the theorists asserted that TRA could be applied in any given context to understand and even predict any human behavior. Although the scope of TRA is wide, the theory still has its limitations and like any other theory, needs constant refinement and revision particularly when extending to choice and goals.
Ajzen acknowledged that "some behaviors are more likely to present problems of controls than others, but we can never be absolutely certain that we will be in a position to carry out our intentions. Viewed in this light it becomes clear that strictly speaking every intention is a goal whose attainment is subject to some degree of uncertainty. According to Eagly and Chaiken, TRA does not take into account that certain conditions that enable the performance of a behavior are not available to individuals.
In fact, attitudes and behaviors may not always be linked by intentions, particularly when the behavior does not require much cognitive effort. In , H. Triandis proposed expanding TRA to include more components. These factors were habit, facilitating conditions, and affect.
When a person performs a behavior in a routine manner they form a habit. Facilitating conditions are conditions that make completion of an action more or less difficult. Both of these conditions affect their behavior directly. On the other hand, affect is the emotional response a person has towards a behavior and this emotional response only affects behavioral intention rather than directly affecting behavior.
This involves the addition of one major predictor—perceived behavioral control. In spite of the improvement, it is suggested that TRA and TPB only provides an account of the determinants of behavior when both motivation and opportunity to process information are high. Further research demonstrating the causal relationships among the variables in TPB and any expansions of it is clearly necessary.
TRA has been used in many studies as a framework for examining specific kinds of behavior such as communication behavior, consumer behavior and health behavior. Many researchers use the theory to study behaviors that are associated with high risks and danger like unethical conduct,  as well as deviant behavior. In contrast, some research has applied the theory to more normative and rational types of action like voting behavior. TRA has been applied to the study of whistle-blowing intentions and hazing in college organizations, specifically fraternities and sororities.
Richardson et al. Their study served to examine whether the relationships suggested by the TRA model remain true in predicting whistle blowing intentions, and if these relationships would change depending on the severity of the hazing incident. The survey questions measured the different aspects of the TRA model: behavioral beliefs, outcome evaluations, attitude toward the behavior, normative beliefs, motivation to comply, subjective norms, and the consequence endogenous variable.
The questions asked respondents to rate their responses on various 7 point scales. The results of the study found that individuals were more likely to report, or whistle-blow, on hazing incidents that were more severe or harmful to individuals.
Simultaneously, individuals were also concerned about the perceptions of others' attitudes towards them and the consequences they may face if they reported hazing incidents. TRA can be applied to the field of public relations and marketing by applying the basics of the theory to campaigns. A few examples of this is using it in a hotel marketing strategy and how likely customers are to come back to the hotel based on behaviors.
TRA is used to examine the communication behavior in corporations. One model captures personal psychological feelings attitudes and subjective norms , the other model not only captures personal feelings but also takes other people's decisions into consideration.
They concluded that employees "have a high probability of not analyzing the decisions of others",  and whether taking other colleague's decision into account has a great impact on people's KS behavioral intention. It is indicated that "the more indirect decision-makers there are in organizations, the less effective is KS".
Coupon usage has also been studied through TRA framework by researchers interested in consumer and marketer behavior. In , Terence Shimp and Alican Kavas applied this theory to coupon usage behavior, with the research premise that "coupon usage is rational, systematic, and thoughtful behavior"  in contrast with other applications of the theory to more dangerous types of behavior.
TRA serves as a useful model because it can help examine whether "consumers' intentions to use coupons are determined by their attitudes and perceptions of whether important others think one should or should not expend the effort to clip, save, and use coupons".
These potential beliefs also influenced the coupon user's thoughts about what others think about their usage of coupons. Together, the coupon user will use their own beliefs and the opinions of others to form an overall attitude towards coupon usage. To approach this study, Shimp and Alican surveyed households and measured the aspects of the TRA model in terms of the participant's responses. The received responses indicated that consumers' norms are "partially determined by their personal beliefs toward coupon usage, and to an even greater extend, that attitudes are influenced by internalizations of others' beliefs".
TRA has been applied to redefine brand loyalty. According to TRA, the antecedents of purchase behavior are attitudes towards the purchase and subjective norm.
Consumers are brand loyal when both attitude and behavior are favorable. In his study, Ha developed a table indicating 8 combinations of customers' brand loyalty based on their loyalty on 3 variables — attitude towards the behavior, subjective norm, and purchase behavior is loyal.
According to Ha, marketing managers should not be discouraged by a temporary disloyalty and need to strive for grabbing brand loyalty when customers are showing loyalty to two of the three variables, but they need to rediagnose their customers' brand loyalty when customers are showing loyalty to only one of them.
The main focus should be pointed at either enhancing the consumer's attitude toward their brand or adjusting their brand to the social norms. TRA has also been used to study consumer attitudes towards renewable energy. In , Bang, et. These studies also provide examples for how the TRA is used to market goods that might not make the most sense from a strictly economic perspective. In addition, Mishara et al. TRA has been frequently used as a framework and predictive mechanism of applied research on sexual behavior, especially in prevention of sexually transmitted disease such as HIV.
According to their discussion, "people are more likely to use condoms if they have previously formed the corresponding intentions. These intentions to use condoms appear to derive from attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control.
These attitudes and norms, in turn, appear to derive from outcome and normative beliefs. Nevertheless, whether behavior was assessed retrospectively or prospectively was an important moderator that influenced the magnitude of the associations between theoretically important variables. In , W. Doswell, Braxter, Cha, and Kim examined sexual behavior in African American teenage girls and applied the theory as a framework for understanding this behavior.
TRA can explain these behaviors in that teens' behavioral intentions to engage in early sexual behavior are influenced by their pre-existing attitudes and subjective norms of their peers. Attitudes in this context are favorable or unfavorable dispositions towards teenage sexual behavior. As a framework, the TRA suggests that adolescents will participate in early behavior because of their own attitudes towards the behavior and the subjective norms of their peers. In this case, intention is the willful plan to perform early sexual behavior.
Attitudes towards sex and subjective norms both correlated with intentions to participate in early sexual behavior in the study's sample.
Action Control pp Cite as. There appears to be general agreement among social psychologists that most human behavior is goal-directed e. Being neither capricious nor frivolous, human social behavior can best be described as following along lines of more or less well-formulated plans. Before attending a concert, for example, a person may extend an invitation to a date, purchase tickets, change into proper attire, call a cab, collect the date, and proceed to the concert hall. Most, if not all, of these activities will have been designed in advance; their execution occurs as the plan unfolds. To be sure, a certain sequence of actions can become so habitual or routine that it is performed almost automatically, as in the case of driving from home to work or playing the piano.
The Islamic rural banks have the potential to grow in Indonesia. The descriptive and structural equation model analyses were used to analyze the data. A random sampling technique is adopted with a sample size of consumers of the Islamic rural banks. The results found that the Sharia system compliance, promotion, services, attitude, subjective norms and intention variables have a significant effect on the use of services at Islamic rural banks. Only product knowledge on Sharia variable has been found to be insignificant.
The theory of reasoned action TRA or ToRA aims to explain the relationship between attitudes and behaviors within human action. It is mainly used to predict how individuals will behave based on their pre-existing attitudes and behavioral intentions. An individual's decision to engage in a particular behavior is based on the outcomes the individual expects will come as a result of performing the behavior. Developed by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen in , the theory derived from previous research in social psychology , persuasion models, and attitude theories. Fishbein's theories suggested a relationship between attitude and behaviors the A-B relationship. However, critics estimated that attitude theories were not proving to be good indicators of human behavior [ citation needed ].
The Epidemiologic Triad is a traditional model of infectious diseases causation, as described previously it consists of an agent, host and environment. The Theory of Reasoned Action is used to explain and predict behavior based on attitudes, norms and intentions. The construct of TRA are: behavioral beliefs, evaluations of behavioral outcomes which leads to attitude, then normative beliefs, motivation to comply which leads to subjective norms. Both the attitude and subjective norm lead to intention to perform the behavior, which results in the behavior. The example that we will be using is the Ebola virus disease, a rare, communicable and deadly disease.
PDF | This paper summarizes the results of published studies that have applied the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior to the.
Internet banking acceptance in Malaysia based on the theory of reasoned action. Abu Shanab II ; J. Michael Pearson III. Address for correspondence. The theory of reasoned action originally introduced in the field of Social Psychology has been widely used to explain individuals' behaviour.
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