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Primary Data And Secondary Collection In Research Methodology Pdf

primary data and secondary collection in research methodology pdf

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Secondary Data Analysis: Ethical Issues and Challenges

One of the major elements and basis of statistical research is data collection, where the most basic data that can be collected in this process is primary data. In other words, we can say that data is the basis of all statistical operations and primary data is the simplest of all data.

Primary data is one of the 2 main types of data, with the second one being the secondary data. These 2 data types have important uses in research, but in this article, we will be considering the primary data type.

We will introduce you to what primary data is, examples, and the various techniques of collecting primary data. Primary data is a type of data that is collected by researchers directly from main sources through interviews, surveys, experiments, etc. Primary data are usually collected from the source—where the data originally originates from and are regarded as the best kind of data in research. The sources of primary data are usually chosen and tailored specifically to meet the demands or requirements of a particular research.

Also, before choosing a data collection source, things like the aim of the research and target population need to be identified. For example, when doing a market survey, the goal of the survey and the sample population need to be identified first.

This is what will determine what data collection source will be most suitable—an offline survey will be more suitable for a population living in remote areas without internet connection compared to online surveys. This is an important aspect of business strategy that involves the process of gathering information about the target market and customers.

The data gathered during market research is primary as it is tailored specifically to meet the business needs. An organization doing market research about a new product say phone they are about to release will need to collect data like purchasing power, feature preferences, daily phone usage, etc.

The data from past surveys are not used because the product differs. When conducting academic research or a thesis experiment, students collect data from the primary source. The kind of data collected during this process may vary according to the kind of research being performed—lab experiments, statistical data gathering, etc. For example, a student carrying out a research project with the aim of finding out the effect of daily intake of fruit juice on an individual's weight will need to take a sample population of 2 or more people, feed them with fruit juice daily and record the changes in their weight.

The data gathered throughout this process is primary. Although people react differently to trauma, there is usually a trait common to people who have gone through the same kind of trauma. The research aimed at finding out how victims of sexual abuse overcame the traumatic experience will include interviewing the survivors, sending them surveys, or any other primary source of data collection.

Experiences differ and every situation is unique. Therefore, using secondary data may not be the best option in this case. Primary data collection methods are different ways in which primary data can be collected.

It explains the tools used in collecting primary data, some of which are highlighted below:. Interview is a method of data collection that involves two groups of people, where the first group is the interviewer the researcher s asking questions and collecting data and the interviewee the subject or respondent that is being asked questions.

The questions and responses during an interview may be oral or verbal as the case may be. Interviews can be carried out in 2 ways, namely; in-person interviews and telephonic interviews. An in-person interview requires an interviewer or a group of interviewers to ask questions from the interviewee in a face to face fashion. It can be direct or indirect, structured or structure, focused or unfocused, etc.

Some of the tools used in carrying out in-person interviews include a notepad or recording device to take note of the conversation—very important due to human forgetful nature. Telephonic interviews, on the other hand, are carried out over the phone through ordinary voice call or video calls.

The 2 parties involved may decide to use video calls like Skype to carry out interviews. A mobile phone, Laptop, Tablet or desktop computer with an internet connection is required for this.

Surveys and questionnaires are 2 similar tools used in collecting primary data. They are a group of questions typed or written down and sent to the sample of study to give responses. After giving the required responses, the survey is given back to the researcher to record.

It is advisable to conduct a pilot study where the questionnaires are filled by experts and meant to assess the weakness of the questions or techniques used. There are 2 main types of surveys used for data collection, namely; online and offline surveys.

Online surveys are carried out using internet-enabled devices like mobile phones, PCs, Tablets, etc. They can be shared with respondents through email, websites, or social media.

Offline surveys, on the other hand, do not require an internet connection for it to be carried out. The most common type of offline survey is paper-based surveys.

However, there are also offline surveys like Formplus that can be filled with a mobile device without access to an internet connection. This kind of survey is called online-offline surveys because they can be filled offline but require an internet connection to be submitted. Observation method is mostly used in studies related to behavioral science. The researcher uses observation as a scientific tool and method of data collection. Observation as a data collection tool is usually systematically planned and subjected to checks and controls.

There are different approaches to the observation method—structured or unstructured, controlled or uncontrolled, and participant, non-participant, or disguised approach. The structured and unstructured approach is characterized by careful definition of subjects of observation, style of observer, conditions, and selection of data.

An observation process that satisfies this is said to be structured and vice versa. A controlled and uncontrolled approach signifies whether the research took place in a natural setting or according to some pre-arranged plans. If an observation is done in a natural setting, it is uncontrolled but becomes controlled if done in a laboratory. Before employing a new teacher, academic institutions sometimes ask for a sample teaching class to test the teacher's ability.

The evaluator joins the class and observes the teaching, making him or her a participant. The evaluation may also decide to observe from outside the class, becoming a non-participant. An evaluator may also be asked to stay in class and disguise as a student, in order to carry out a disguised observation.

Focus Groups are gathering of 2 or more people with similar characteristics or who possess common traits. They seek open-ended thoughts and contributions from participants. A focus group is a primary source of data collection because the data is collected directly from the participant. It is commonly used for market research, where a group of market consumers engage in a discussion with a research moderator.

It is slightly similar to interviews, but this involves discussions and interactions rather than questions and answers. Focus groups are less formal and the participants are the ones who do most of the talking, with moderators there to oversee the process.

An experiment is a structured study where the researchers attempt to understand the causes, effects, and processes involved in a particular process. This data collection method is usually controlled by the researcher, who determines which subject is used, how they are grouped and the treatment they receive. During the first stage of the experiment, the researcher selects the subject which will be considered.

Some actions are therefore carried out on these subjects, while the primary data consisting of the actions and reactions are recorded by the researcher. After which they will be analyzed and a conclusion will be drawn from the result of the analysis. Although experiments can be used to collect different types of primary data, it is mostly used for data collection in the laboratory.

Primary data can be collocated with Formplus using online surveys or questionnaires. Therefore, we will be showing you how to use a questionnaire to collect primary data on Formplus. You can choose to either create a questionnaire from scratch, or take advantage of the available templates from Formplus.

Follow the following steps to create a question. Alternatively, you can go to the Templates tab, type your query into the search text box, then click on the search icon. Tailor your questionnaire to suit the needs of the type of research being carried out. After satisfactorily editing your forms, the next thing is to start collecting the primary data needed for your research.

To do this, you need to share your questionnaire with the sample population who are going to respond to the questions. There are different ways of sharing questionnaires to participants. You can copy the form link, share directly to your social media platforms, or share the QR code.

For unique identification, you can also edit the form link with specific keywords. When discussing the advantages of primary data over secondary data, a lot of examples can be sighted. This is because primary data has vast uses in research, statistics, and even business.

Collecting your own data allows you the freedom to address issues specific to your business, or research aim. In this case, the data collected is exactly what the researcher wants and needs. The researcher reports it in a way that benefits the current situation of the organization or research.

For example, when doing market research for a product, the data collected will be specifically for the product in question. Primary data is much more accurate compared to secondary data. For example, when collecting statistical data from online sources, you are at risk of coming across false data. This is because the data available online is not regulated, unlike the data you collect yourself.

This is very common in journalism, where blogs share unverified and exaggerated information just to gain cheap traffic. The data collected through a primary source is usually owned by the researcher, who may choose to either share or not share with others.

In the market research example stated earlier, researchers may keep the results to themselves and not give access to their competitors who may want to use the information. Also, a researcher can choose to sell the data to make a huge amount of money because they own it. The data collected from primary sources are up-to-date, unlike that of the secondary sources. It collects data in real-time and does not take information from stale and outdated sources.

For example, when the population of a community is something that continues to fluctuate as people die and children are born. Going by the National Census, one may not get accurate results of the population, and can only settle for estimates. A researcher can easily control the research design and methods to be used.

As a researcher, you can choose which subject to consider, and also control how the information is gathered.

Secondary research

Already have an account? Log in. Sign up. If you need more help, please contact our support team. Today businesses and organizations are connected to their clients, customers, users, employees, vendors, and sometimes even their competitors. Data can tell a story about any of these relationships, and with this information, organizations can improve almost any aspect of their operations.

Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. The data collection component of research is common to all fields of study including physical and social sciences, humanities, business, etc. While methods vary by discipline, the emphasis on ensuring accurate and honest collection remains the same. The importance of ensuring accurate and appropriate data collection Regardless of the field of study or preference for defining data quantitative, qualitative , accurate data collection is essential to maintaining the integrity of research. Both the selection of appropriate data collection instruments existing, modified, or newly developed and clearly delineated instructions for their correct use reduce the likelihood of errors occurring.

Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data collection. Secondary data is a type of data that has already been published in books, newspapers, magazines, journals, online portals etc. There is an abundance of data available in these sources about your research area in business studies, almost regardless of the nature of the research area. Therefore, application of appropriate set of criteria to select secondary data to be used in the study plays an important role in terms of increasing the levels of research validity and reliability. These criteria include, but not limited to date of publication, credential of the author, reliability of the source, quality of discussions, depth of analyses, the extent of contribution of the text to the development of the research area etc.

Secondary data

Research does not always involve collection of data from the participants. There is huge amount of data that is being collected through the routine management information system and other surveys or research activities. The existing data can be analyzed to generate new hypothesis or answer critical research questions. This saves lots of time, money and other resources.

This chapter examines prerequisites for enabling reuse or secondary analysis of qualitative data informally known as SAQD that has not been collected by the analyst. The first part of the chapter provides an overview of what people are doing with existing data, from new analysis to revisiting one's own data, and what challenges face them in their quest. The second part poses questions that a secondary analyst can ask of data, such as, are the data to hand a good fit for the proposed project? The role of detective comes to mind, appraising the materials and examining provenance to satisfy oneself that there is adequate context surrounding the data and that the limitations

One of the major elements and basis of statistical research is data collection, where the most basic data that can be collected in this process is primary data. In other words, we can say that data is the basis of all statistical operations and primary data is the simplest of all data. Primary data is one of the 2 main types of data, with the second one being the secondary data.

Secondary Data

Primary Sources of Data and Secondary Sources of Data

Primary data is when the data is gathered directly from the genuine source. Basically, every information you gather from first-hand experience is primary data. Data is the cornerstone of all statistical research. But the origin of your data and the way you gather it influences heavily the outcome of your results. Technically, there are three types of data based on their source and availability: primary, secondary and mosaic.

Secondary research is contrasted with primary research in that primary research involves the generation of data, whereas secondary research uses primary research sources as a source of data for analysis. Common examples of secondary research include textbooks , encyclopedias , news articles, review articles , and meta analyses. When conducting secondary research, authors may draw data from published academic papers, government documents, statistical databases, and historical records. The term is widely used in primary research , legal research and market research. The principal methodology in health secondary research is the systematic review , commonly using meta-analytic statistical techniques, but other methods of synthesis, like realist reviews and meta-narrative [5] reviews, have been developed in recent years. Such secondary research uses the primary research of others typically in the form of research publications and reports.

Secondary data refers to data that is collected by someone other than the primary user. Secondary data analysis can save time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data , can provide larger and higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. However, secondary data analysis can be less useful in marketing research, as data may be outdated or inaccurate. Government departments and agencies routinely collect information when registering people or carrying out transactions, or for record keeping — usually when delivering a service. This information is called administrative data.

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 Сидит тридцать шесть часов подряд. Бедняга. Наверное, жена сказала ему не возвращаться домой. Я слышал, она его уже достала. Мидж задумалась.

Когда его торс уже свисал над лестницей, шаги послышались совсем .

Господи Иисусе, - подумал.  - Наркотики внутривенно. Кто бы мог подумать.

Стратмор убил Чатрукьяна. Хейл, видимо, не догадывается, что она видела его внизу. - Стратмор знает, что я это видел! - Хейл сплюнул.  - Он и меня убьет. Если бы Сьюзан не была парализована страхом, она бы расхохоталась ему в лицо.

Ему захотелось увидеть ее глаза, он надеялся найти в них избавление. Но в них была только смерть. Смерть ее веры в. Любовь и честь были забыты. Мечта, которой он жил все эти годы, умерла.

Data Collection Methods

В тусклом свете мониторов Сьюзан увидела, что это, и побледнела. Он достал пистолет. Он выдвинул два стула на середину комнаты. Сел.

Хейл же все время старался высвободиться и смотрел ей прямо в. - Как люди смогут защитить себя от произвола полицейского государства, когда некто, оказавшийся наверху, получит доступ ко всем линиям связи. Как они смогут ему противостоять. Эти аргументы она слышала уже много .

 Мы погибли, - прошептала Мидж. - Подождите, - сказала Сьюзан.  - Прочитайте еще. Соши прочитала снова: - …Искусственно произведенный, обогащенный нейтронами изотоп урана с атомным весом 238. - Двести тридцать восемь? - воскликнула Сьюзан.

Стратмор решил, что лучше взять его к себе и заставить трудиться на благо АНБ, чем позволить противодействовать агентству извне. Стратмор мужественно перенес разразившийся скандал, горячо защищая свои действия перед конгрессом. Он утверждал, что стремление граждан к неприкосновенности частной переписки обернется для Америки большими неприятностями.

У сотрудников лаборатории систем безопасности была единственная обязанность - поддерживать ТРАНСТЕКСТ в чистоте, следить, чтобы в него не проникли вирусы. Он знал, что пятнадцатичасовой прогон может означать только одно: зараженный файл попал в компьютер и выводит из строя программу. Все, чему его учили, свидетельствовало о чрезвычайности ситуации. Тот факт, что в лаборатории систем безопасности никого нет, а монитор был выключен, больше не имело значения. Главное теперь - сам ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

Сьюзан потребовалось всего мгновение. Стратмор сразу заметил изумление, мелькнувшее в ее глазах, и взволнованно изложил свой план: - Если бы я получил ключ, то смог бы взломать наш экземпляр Цифровой крепости и внести нужные изменения… - Черный ход, - сказала Сьюзан, мгновенно забыв о том, что Стратмор ей лгал. Она все поняла.  - Вроде Попрыгунчика.

 - Документ слишком объемный. Найдите содержание. Соши открутила несколько страниц. Механизм атомной бомбы A) альтиметр B) детонатор сжатого воздуха C) детонирующие головки D) взрывчатые заряды E) нейтронный дефлектор F) уран и плутоний G) свинцовая защита Н) взрыватели II. Ядерное делениеядерный синтез A) деление (атомная бомба) и синтез (водородная бомба) B) U-235, U-238 и плутоний III.

The Three Ways of Primary Data Collection


  1. Doris R.

    11.06.2021 at 00:06

    Elementary linear algebra by howard anton 10th edition solution manual pdf black templars codex 6th edition pdf

  2. Ethan G.

    11.06.2021 at 18:32

    Primary data is data that is collected by a researcher for the first time from first-hand resources using methods like experiments, observations, interviews and [70]. In this research, primary data was collected through questionnaire, because empirical data is essential for this paper research approach.

  3. Clusanzilti1993

    12.06.2021 at 15:21

    study and time factor, both sources of data i.e. primary and secondary data have been selected. These are used in combination to give proper.

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