File Name: pathogenesis and control of viral diseases .zip
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Viral pathogenesis is the study of the process and mechanisms by which viruses cause diseases in their target hosts , often at the cellular or molecular level. It is a specialized field of study in virology. Pathogenesis is a qualitative description of the process by which an initial infection causes disease. There are several factors that affect pathogenesis. Some of these factors include virulence characteristics of the virus that is infecting.
Viral diseases contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality and remain a major threat to global health. Although vaccines are notably successful in the prevention of many infections, effective vaccines are not available for most viruses including the pandemic human immunodeficiency virus HIV and hepatitis C virus HCV. Direct antiviral agents can efficiently inhibit the replication of certain viruses but generally do not provide sterilizing cures, with the notable exception of HCV infection. Emerging and re-emerging viruses have caused an increasing number of disease outbreaks in humans and animals. There is unmet medical need to further our understanding of viral pathogenesis to enable more effective control and prevention of viral infections. Elucidating virus—host interaction is an essential step toward this goal. Viruses generally show variation in both acquisition susceptibility and clinical presentations, suggesting that viral pathogenesis is due to complex interactions between host and viruses.
It requires a living cell in which to multiply. A viral infection can lead to a spectrum of symptoms from asymptomatic no overt symptoms to severe disease. People may get viruses by swallowing or inhaling them, by being bitten by insects, or through sexual contact. Most commonly, viral infections involve the nose, throat, and upper airways, or systems such as the nervous, gastrointestinal, and reproductive systems. Doctors may base the diagnosis on symptoms, blood tests and cultures, or examination of infected tissues.
Because of the enormous variations in viruses and in their epidemiology and pathogenesis, there is no single, magic-bullet approach to control. Each virus.
Viruses cause a variety of diseases in animals, including humans, ranging from the common cold to potentially fatal illnesses like meningitis Figure 1. These diseases can be treated by antiviral drugs or by vaccines, but some viruses, such as HIV, are capable of both avoiding the immune response and mutating to become resistant to antiviral drugs. Figure 1. Viruses can cause dozens of ailments in humans, ranging from mild illnesses to serious diseases.
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Based on the highly successful reference work Viral Pathogenesis published in , this concise, economical version can be used both as an introductory text or for self-education by medical students and biologists alike. This latest edition provides a completely revised overview of the subject with new chapters on innate immunity, emerging viral diseases, and antiviral therapy in a format that is easy to understand without continually referring to additional information. Used by the author in his graduate classes at the University of Pennsylvania, it sets forth the essential principles and discusses the details of how the immune system responds to viral invasion including the treatment and prevention of infection.
Viral infections are the leading cause of gastroenteritis globally and in Europe and may also cause enterically transmitted hepatitis and illness after migrating from the human intestine to other organs. Various viruses have been implicated in foodborne illness, with two types of virus, Norovirus and Hepatitis A, causing the most significant burden of foodborne illness and outbreaks, as they are highly contagious. Rotavirus is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in children and Hepatitis E, while primarily associated with waterborne infections, has been associated with foodborne outbreaks.
Patients with EVD generally have an abrupt onset of fever and symptoms typically 8 to12 days after exposure incubation period for current outbreak has a mean of approximately 9 to 11 days. Initial signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may include elevated body temperature or subjective fever, chills, myalgias, and malaise. Because of these nonspecific symptoms, particularly early in the course of the disease, EVD often can be confused with other more common infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, meningococcemia, and other bacterial infections for example, pneumonia.
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By Ma. Speaking of viral pathogenesis, it must describe the features and factors of viral pathogen, hosts and environment. Over its lifetime, an individual is exposed to many infectious agents, however, in most situations does not develop a disease thanks to factors such as physical and chemical host barriers.
A viral disease or viral infection occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses , and infectious virus particles virions attach to and enter susceptible cells. Basic structural characteristics, such as genome type, virion shape and replication site, generally share the same features among virus species within the same family. Exceptions are known to this rule: poxviruses replicate within the cytoplasm and orthomyxoviruses and hepatitis D virus RNA viruses replicate within the nucleus. The clinical characteristics of viruses may differ substantially among species within the same family:. Vertical and sexual .
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Над головой, в головокружительном пустом пространстве, на потрепанной веревке раскачивалась серебряная курильница размером с холодильник, описывая громадную дугу и источая едва уловимый аромат. Колокола Гиральды по-прежнему звонили, заставляя содрогаться каменные своды. Беккер перевел взгляд на позолоченную стену под потолком.
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