File Name: climate change and vector borne diseases ppt to .zip
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Metrics details. Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters.
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Vector-borne diseases account for over 17% of all infectious diseases. Source: PPT on Health Climate change and WHO, Figure from Arc c.
Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. Nearly million people get a mosquito-borne illness each year resulting in over one million deaths. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria , dengue , West Nile virus , chikungunya , yellow fever ,  filariasis , tularemia , dirofilariasis , Japanese encephalitis , Saint Louis encephalitis , Western equine encephalitis , Eastern equine encephalitis ,  Venezuelan equine encephalitis , Ross River fever , Barmah Forest fever , La Crosse encephalitis , and Zika fever ,  as well as newly detected Keystone virus and Rift Valley fever.
As globalization and climate change progress, the expansion and introduction of vector-borne diseases VBD from endemic regions to non-endemic regions is expected to occur. Mathematical and statistical models can be useful in predicting when and where these changes in distribution may happen. Our objective was to conduct a scoping review to identify and characterize predictive and importation models related to vector-borne diseases that exist in the global literature. A literature search was conducted to identify publications published between and from five scientific databases using relevant keywords. Relevance screening and data characterization were performed by two reviewers using pretested forms.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases—including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, plague, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis—together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined Gubler, By the midth century, implementation of strategies to reduce populations of the mosquitoes that spread malaria, yellow fever, and dengue effectively reduced the impact of these diseases on human health—albeit temporarily. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans. A variety of factors underlie this trend among emerging vector-borne diseases, including.
Identification, taxonomy, systematics and molecular phylogenetics of parasites and arthropod vectors. Surveillance of indigenous and invasive arthropod vectors of public and veterinary health relevance: distribution, abundance and bionomics. Assessment of vector-pathogen relationships and the risk of pathogen transmission and associated disease. Impact of environmental change on the transmission dynamics of parasites and the biology, ecology and distribution of intermediate hosts and vectors. Emergence, re emergence and globalisation of vectors, pathogens and hosts and One Health.
Climate change is expected to alter the geographic and seasonal distributions of existing vectors and vector-borne diseases [Likely, High Confidence]. Ticks capable of carrying the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other pathogens will show earlier seasonal activity and a generally northward expansion in response to increasing temperatures associated with climate change [Likely, High Confidence]. Longer seasonal activity and expanding geographic range of these ticks will increase the risk of human exposure to ticks [Likely, Medium Confidence]. Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and a higher frequency of some extreme weather events associated with climate change will influence the distribution, abundance, and prevalence of infection in the mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus and other pathogens by altering habitat availability and mosquito and viral reproduction rates [Very Likely, High Confidence].
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