File Name: risk and safety phrases .zip
In order to ensure chemical safety in the workplace, information about the identities and hazards of the chemicals must be available and understandable to workers.
R risk and S safety phrases occur extensively in chemical documentation. The following explains their origin and set wording, along with their successors—the H hazard and P precautionary statements. Numbered R-phrases risk phrases and S-phrases safety phrases are among the most ubiquitous text units encountered in chemical documentation. Although they appear frequently, many translators are unaware of the official set translations that employ established and accepted terminology.
This article will cover risk and safety phrases within the context of the standardization bodies working on them and point to resources for the terminology in European languages. Risk R and safety S phrases are statements of words that are used to describe the risk and safety aspects of hazardous substances.
The wording is standardized in each language and sometimes country-specific. Each phrase is associated with an identifying letter-number code for brevity e. The list has been incorporated into official notifications, links to which can be found in the resources sidebar on page These phrases appear in Material Safety Data Sheets MSDSs ; chemical, analytical, and manufacturing procedures; cargo statements; product brochures; customs declarations; and many other documents related to commercial chemicals.
When the treaty expired in , the ECSC was dissolved. In , the ECSC issued a list of commercial chemical substances and a set of safety phrases in the four languages of the member states: German, French, Italian, and Dutch. Note that English played no role at that point! These phrases were to be included with the packaging of commodities that moved between member states to describe the potential risks and provide safety advice regarding dangerous substances and preparations e.
In , the European Economic Community revised the legislative bases for safety labeling requirements. The geographic and linguistic scope of the EU had also expanded by that point, and R and S phrases were specified for all official languages 22 at that time. For example, R10 Flammable was rendered as:. Of course, the chemical substance trade is international and extends far beyond the EU. For example, R23 is rendered as:.
Generally speaking, these phrases show up in any type of documentation associated with commercial chemicals and products in which the chemicals are ingredients. These include product labels, shipping manifests, customs documentation, MSDSs, safety data sheets SDs , product safety data sheet PSDs and documentation, as well as manufacturing instructions and batch records, and related legislation and regulations. As an example, a portion of the label for a glyphosate-based herbicide produced in the U.
Sometimes the phrases alone are used, sometimes only the letter-number codes, but often both are present. Occasionally one finds differences in punctuation, but these phrases should always be used in the standard forms for the respective languages.
In other words, they should appear word-for-word as they appear in the original list. In many cases, the phrases are linguistically equivalent across languages; that is, each would be considered the obvious translation by a technical translator who is familiar with the subject matter. However, in some cases, and for reasons best known to the members of the working groups who derived the official forms, the sense of meaning seems different to some extent.
Regardless, a translator who comes across the phrase in a source document should always provide the official form in the target language, even if it seems to be an imprecise translation. In these cases, a translator who provides a literal translation, or who translates the meaning of the source according to his or her professional preference, will be doing the end client a disservice if the target phrase differs from the standard form. As can be seen from the discussion so far, the evolution of R and S phrases has followed a winding course, formulated by national government working groups e.
In the background, a separate effort within a UN framework had begun as early as to harmonize and supersede the extant separate systems used in the European Economic Community, the Americas, and other regions of the world on a global basis. To avoid the appearance of this effort being a further grafting of modifications onto the original R and S phrase stock, the new system was organized around H hazard statements and P precautionary statements. H and P statements are intended to serve the same purposes as R and S phrases i.
The first version of the GHS was released in , and recognized 17 physical hazard categories, 10 health hazard categories, and two environmental hazard categories aquatic toxicity and the ozone layer. H and P statements are the result of a revision and refocusing of R and S phrases. To avoid confusion, the statement numbering range begins at higher values than those used in R and S phrases.
Hazard statement numbering runs from H to H, and precautionary statement numbering goes from P to P, although not all numbers in the sequences are used. The GHS has been updated every two years since , and final voluntary adoption timeframes differ by country. For example, Mexico published its national implementation of the GHS on October 9, , as an alternative to the national system. The final adoption for the U. Of course, as with many declarations and directives by the UN, compliance is optional and is highly variable in practice.
In North America, the U. Hazard Statements H statements www. MSDS Hyperglossary www. Precaution Statements P statements www. Risk Phrases R phrases www. Safety Phrases S phrases www. Regional Comparisons A comparison of the wording in a few examples of the Mexican Spanish versions of the statements with those from the EU i. R and S phrases and H and P statements are standardized text strings that describe the properties of commercial chemicals and ingredients. The H and P statements are officially standard now, but R and S phrases still turn up.
They are found in many contexts related to international and domestic chemical product commerce. The source- and target-language phrases can be used to build a TM that can then be incorporated into larger projects or client-specific TMs. This would be done by taking the list of phrases in the source language, and then going through the translation process using a computer-aided translation CAT tool and using the official versions to input the target-language portions of the translation segments.
Hopefully this basic overview will give you a better idea of how these phrases work and their place in documents for translation.
Matthew Schlecht is a chemist and scientific and medical translator who works into English from German, Japanese, French, and Spanish. His main areas of expertise are chemistry, medicine, and pharmaceuticals. He spent 20 years in academia and industry as a researcher in chemistry and the life sciences. He left research in early to begin a freelance practice in translation, editing, and writing.
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Lawrlwytho'r atodiad gwreiddiol PDF file. Human Health Risk of serious damage to eyes. Safety Phrases S25 Avoid contact with eyes. S57 Use appropriate containment to avoid environmental contamination. S60 This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. S61 Avoid release to the environment. Other hazards Not applicable.
R phrase and R number: phrases indicating the risks of hazardous preparations and substances, and their numbers respectively. S phrase and S number: phrases related to the safe handling of hazardous preparations, and their numbers respectively.
This is due to several recent significant chemical accidents, increasing public awareness and skyrocketing liability and accident costs. At work, make sure you checked all safety aspects before proceeding with a job. Try making safety a habit and apply it at all times. All personnel immediately vacated the space and the area was vented for several hours. The following tips can help minimize chemical exposure in laboratories, round out a chemical hygiene plan, and promote worker safety. The Solution: Chemical Safety Software was tasked with implementing a rapid and cost-effective solution to address this the needs of this organization, Chemical Safety matched the existing chemical inventories to its vast database of Safety Data Sheets SDS and its most up-to-date GHS chemical reference database. As a minimum, the hazard communication program should describe how the n endobj The CSB is an independent federal agency charged with investigating industrial chemical accidents.
R-phrases consisted of the letter R followed by a number. The precise meaning of each of these appears in the table below. These are now obsolete see Additional Info. Safety phrases S-phrases for handling precautions were also part of the same requirements and are also obsolete. R-phrases were used to specify the particular danger s of the material whereas the other label elements such as symbols or pictograms see CHIP only indicated broad classes of hazards.
Remove the need for manual work by automatically gathering and harmonizing text-based information. SDS typically contain chemical properties, health and environmental hazards, protective measures, as well as safety precautions for storing, handling, and transporting chemicals. The European Union EU requires that risk phrases R-phrases , specifying danger s , appear on each label and safety data sheet for hazardous chemicals.
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