File Name: studies in machiavellianism christie and geis .zip
This study examined relationships involving Machiavellianism, the career plateau, job satisfaction and salary in a sample of commercial bank officers in the United States. Results showed that American bankers had relatively low Machiavellianism scores compared to scores reported for other groups. While a negative relationship between job satisfaction and Machiavellianism was found, there was no association between salary and Machiavellianism.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Machiavellianism and Intimacy Attitudes in the Interpersonal Relationships. Based upon a questionnaire of 20 items dealing with beliefs about the nature of human, values and behaviours, the Mach-IV scale is a self-report 7-point Likert-type scale which assesses three distinct themes: 1 the use of deceit in interpersonal relationships 9 items , 2 a cynical view of human nature 9 items , and 3 the lack of morality 2 items.
A basic premise of the Mach-IV scale is that high scores indicate higher endorsement of Machiavellian views and behaviour whilst low scores simply imply the opposite. Previous studies revealed that High Machs were less likely to confess when they had cheated, and would try to conceal the truth Exline et al. Hence, not all Machs are shadowy and unsavoury manipulators. Due to the lack of emotional attachment, High Machs prefer not to establish close intimate relationships, but these relationships, including sexual Jonason et al.
All in all, increasing attention has been drawn towards the study of Machiavellianism in recent years owing to its prominence in subclinical populations and influence on psychological adjustment McHoskey, ; Martin et al. Even though High Machs place little importance on engaging a close relationship, it happens, especially when the relationship can bring benefits to them Mandal, Such empathy deficits may not only offer High Machs an advantage in their ability to manipulate or deceive others in order to achieve their own goals, but they may also harm their social relationships.
Accordingly, it is not easy for High Machs to get involved in close relationships; their interpersonal relations are associated with hostile behaviours as well as characterized by a great deal of distrust, disrespect and lack of loyalty. Nevertheless, there is still little known about the intimacy attitudes of the individuals with more pronounced Machiavellian trait in the interpersonal relationships.
The IAS-R was designed to measure constructs of positive intimacy and negative intimacy within the interpersonal relationships. Positive intimacy is defined as the degree to which a person wants to share feelings, ideas and experiences in the interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, negative intimacy is the degree to which a person is concerned with domination, conflict, criticism, freedom, distrust and powerlessness.
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the intimacy attitudes of the individuals with more pronounced Machiavellian trait in the interpersonal relationships. Two instruments were administered to collect the research data. The twenty items are divided into three categories, namely 9 items on the use of tactics in interpersonal relationships, 9 items on cynical views of human nature and 2 items on lacking of morality. As ten items of the scale show avoidance of Machiavellian attitude instead of acceptance, they have been reverse scored.
The total score ranges from 20 to Using the cut-off point of 80, people scoring above 80 are identified as High Machs whereas those scoring 80 or below are known as Low Machs. Of the 50 items, 26 items are negatively worded and need to be reverse scored. In other words, there are 24 items measuring positive intimacy whilst the remaining 26 items measure negative intimacy. Both structural validity and content validity of the scale were confirmed by correlating the IAS-R with several intimacy scales and approved by a number of professional editors.
Thus, the total score ranges from 47 to All the required briefing and de-briefing information were provided with the questionnaire. Since the participants were over the age of 18, no parental or guardian consent was needed. Before performing the correlation analysis, normality checks for the two scales were conducted.
It is clear that the skewness and kurtosis data all seem to imply normal distributions. In addition, other results like the Q-Q plots, box plots and histograms with normal distribution curves were scrutinized such that the parametric assumptions of the two scales could be checked.
Moreover, similar tests and analyses were applied to the 19 items on positive intimacy and 23 items on negative intimacy. The numerical results can be summarized as follows:. Scatter plots with lines of best fit were examined to check for the linear assumptions involving the Pearson correlations.
Results of the scatter plots indicate that all the correlations are linear. Likewise, linear regression was applied to determine the linear relation between the two scales. This is consistent with the results of correlation analysis. Obviously, these numerical results confirm the hypothesis that Machiavellianism is negatively correlated with positive intimacy and positively correlated with negative intimacy.
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between Machiavellianism and intimacy attitudes in the interpersonal relationships. Findings of the correlation analysis show that individuals with more pronounced Machiavellian trait are characterized by lower IAS-R scores.
Regression analysis suggests that Machiavellianism is a significant predictor of the score on the IAS-R, too. Moreover, our correlation analysis has demonstrated that Machiavellianism is positively correlated with negative intimacy and negatively correlated with positive intimacy. Nevertheless, it should be noted that perhaps due to the small sample size our analysis of the gender differences fails to yield any statistically significant finding. In conclusion, Machiavellianism is found in the current study to be a reliable predictor of the intimacy attitude of an individual, and this result coincides with those of correlation analysis: the Mach IV Scale negatively correlates with the IAS-R as well as Machiavellianism negatively positively correlates with positive negative intimacy.
This study represents only a small contribution in the field of Machiavellianism and intimate relationships, and its findings may help shed light upon the direction of future research. For instance, the intimacy attitude of an individual may comprise a number of major components rather than the two constructs of positive intimacy and negative intimacy, and thus a multi-dimensional analysis of the relation between Machiavellianism and intimacy attitudes in the interpersonal relationships is highly desirable.
There are several major limitations in the present study. First, the sample in this study was obtained by convenience sampling and might not represent the whole population. Second, the conclusions of the current study are of course restricted by a reliance on self-reported data which are inevitably subject to social desirability, random responding, biased interpretation and recall accuracy.
Third, as interpersonal relationships are dyadic, the perception of both members of the dyad is important for establishing the processes involved in developing intimacy and closeness. A dyadic approach thus provides valuable opportunities for future research. Lastly, the correlational questionnaire design does not allow us to infer causality, so longitudinal research monitoring the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationship dyads is recommended.
The authors would like to thank Dr. Sue Jamison-Powell and Dr. Jonathan Yeung for their useful comments and suggestions. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, Journal of Personality Assessment, 47, Personality and Individual Differences, 43, Social Psychology, 41, Machiavellianism and Romantic Relationship Dissolution.
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Parental personality is a main contributor to parenting outcomes. However, research on parental personality and parenting or coparenting behaviour is scarce. These few studies showed that disagreeableness and neuroticism are consequently related to negative parenting outcomes. Machiavellianism is an antagonistic and socially aversive personality trait. Machiavellianism has been linked to unfavourable outcomes in several different types of relationships e. At the same time, relatively much is known about the personality functioning and personality traits of Machiavellian individuals.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Machiavellianism and Intimacy Attitudes in the Interpersonal Relationships. Based upon a questionnaire of 20 items dealing with beliefs about the nature of human, values and behaviours, the Mach-IV scale is a self-report 7-point Likert-type scale which assesses three distinct themes: 1 the use of deceit in interpersonal relationships 9 items , 2 a cynical view of human nature 9 items , and 3 the lack of morality 2 items. A basic premise of the Mach-IV scale is that high scores indicate higher endorsement of Machiavellian views and behaviour whilst low scores simply imply the opposite. Previous studies revealed that High Machs were less likely to confess when they had cheated, and would try to conceal the truth Exline et al.
In the field of personality psychology , Machiavellianism is a personality trait centered on manipulativeness , callousness, and indifference to morality. Those who score high on the scale High Machs are more likely to have a high level of deceitfulness and an unempathetic temperament. It is one of the dark triad traits, along with narcissism and psychopathy. In the s, Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis wanted to analyze those who manipulated others, and developed a test using a selection of statements, including a few truncated and edited sentences from Machiavelli's works as test items, naming the construct "Machiavellianism" after Machiavelli. Their Mach IV test, a question, Likert-scale personality survey, became the standard self-assessment tool of the Machiavellianism construct.
Studies in Machiavellianism. Book • Authors: Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis.
Studies in Machiavellianism covers the various aspects of Machiavellian personality and characteristics. Traditionally, the "Machiavellian" is someone who views and manipulates others for his own purposes. This chapter text discusses the empirical findings on approved canons of social psychological reporting concerning Machiavellianism. The introductory chapters examine the relationships between Machiavellianism and measures of ability, opinion, and personality, as well as the visual interaction in relation to Machiavellianism and an unethical act. The succeeding chapters discuss the results and implications of the Machiavel study, with a particular emphasis on the measure of success of attempts to manipulate others.
Editorial Team. Focus and Scope. Abstracting and Indexing.
Тихо, - потребовал Фонтейн и повернулся к Сьюзан. - Мисс Флетчер, вы проделали уже немалую часть пути. Постарайтесь пройти по нему до конца.
Чутье подсказывает мне, что здесь все верно. Бринкерхофф нахмурился. Даже директор не ставил под сомнение чутье Мидж Милкен - у нее была странная особенность всегда оказываться правой. - Что-то затевается, - заявила Мидж.
PDF | Early in the 16th century, Niccolo Machiavelli acted as chief political advisor presented in Christie and Geis's () book, Studies in Machiavellianism.
Вы сможете его найти? - спросил Стратмор. - Конечно. Почему вы не позвонили мне раньше. - Честно говоря, - нахмурился Стратмор, - я вообще не собирался этого делать. Мне не хотелось никого в это впутывать. Я сам попытался отправить твой маячок, но ты использовала для него один из новейших гибридных языков, и мне не удалось привести его в действие. Он посылал какую-то тарабарщину.
Я срочно уезжаю. Вернусь завтра. И уже утром мы сможем поехать. В нашем распоряжении будет целых два дня. - Но я уже забронировала номер, обиженно сказала Сьюзан.
ГЛАВА 124 - Атаке подвергся последний щит. На ВР отчетливо было видно, как уничтожалось окно программной авторизации. Черные всепроникающие линии окружили последний предохранительный щит и начали прорываться к сердцевине банка данных.
Мне поручено передать вам .
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