File Name: ancient and medieval history of ethiopia .zip
Dessalegn Rahmato has also contributed several papers on contemporary issues on the history of the environment Dessalegn, They shed light on the impact of environmental degradation on social unrest and on changes of regime both in the ancient and modern periods of Ethiopia.
Trenton, N. ISBN: Ethiopia has been continually challenged by the historical trio of drought, famine, and wars, and today food security is still a major problem. Indeed, since the Sahelian drought, Ethiopia has attracted world attention for its devastating famines.
Combining consultancy and research experience and focusing on the correlation between the historical and political factors, Yebio Woldemariam provides an excellent account of agricultural production in Ethiopia since medieval times. Even the relatively late, limited adoption of the wheel had significant impact on Ethiopian agriculture. It is interesting that despite the radical land reform of , no major changes occurred in agricultural production.
The reform made land available to the peasantry, but it still had significant drawbacks. Although universally welcomed at first, the policy was not effectively executed and failed to produce any major changes in the lives of the producers. A small group of influential members of the regime administered the reforms and refused to recognize the right of citizens to operate commercial farms of any sort. In addition, their policies included the hugely unpopular resettlement programs by which the government moved close to half a million peasants from their ancestral land to make way for the construction of socialist enterprises, cooperatives, and state farms.
As a result of the resettlement, by mid over 12 million people from the north were forced into villagization centers in the southern and western parts of the country.
Lack of skilled personnel, weak linkages between agricultural extension and research, and small landholdings have also worked against surplus production.
The country is still unable to feed itself despite improved agricultural policies since the fall of the revolutionary regime. Food security did not improve with the coming to power in of the current government, and the country is still dependent on food aid. In an attempt to facilitate a rapid response to food shortage, the current government has focused on building warehouses without considering food production as a whole, and the food aid industry is even more active today than during the famine.
While the book provides some plausible explanations for the lack of a breakthrough in agricultural production, it does not mention all of the relevant factors. Ethiopia has had ongoing relationships with Europe at least since the first half of the nineteenth century, importing many modern weapons but too few modern agricultural tools. Increasing numbers of European explorers, diplomats, and missionaries in Ethiopia as well as Ethiopians studying in Europe did not result in substantial agricultural innovation and production.
Nevertheless, Ethiopia, An Ancient Land is a fascinating must-read for policymakers, researchers, and ordinary readers interested in Africa. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
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Yebio Woldemariam. If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution or have your own login and password to Project MUSE. Additional Information. Project MUSE Mission Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
Ethiopia , country on the Horn of Africa. The country lies completely within the tropical latitudes and is relatively compact, with similar north-south and east-west dimensions. Ethiopia is the largest and most populated country in the Horn of Africa. With the secession of Eritrea , its former province along the Red Sea , Ethiopia became landlocked. In ancient times it remained centred on Aksum , an imperial capital located in the northern part of the modern state, about miles km from the Red Sea coast.
Adventurously sailing the Indian Ocean in the early s CE, Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese naval officer, was confident that he was helping to forge a new, enduring era of Portuguese dominance. In the conflict that followed, the Portuguese plundered the Swahili city-states, burning buildings and enslaving African men and women. However, less than years later, Portuguese influences were noticeably absent in most of East Africa and their power in the Indian Ocean was fading rapidly. Barbosa, himself, had traveled with his brother-in-law, Ferdinand Magellan, and met an untimely end in his early 40s in the Philippines. Writing about the coast of East Africa, Barbosa paid little heed to the hundreds of years of Swahili history that preceded his visit. Therefore, his narrative gives us minimal information about Swahili civilization. Since information readily available in the U.
It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopian national identity is grounded in the historic and contemporary roles of Christianity and Islam, and the independence of Ethiopia from foreign rule, stemming from the various ancient Ethiopian kingdoms of antiquity. Oral literature tells that the monarchy was founded by the Solomonic dynasty of the Queen of Sheba , under its first king, Menelik I. During the late—19th-century Scramble for Africa , Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two nations that preserved their sovereignty from long-term colonisation by a European colonial power , and many newly independent nations on the continent adopted its flag colours.
The article covers the prehistory and history of Ethiopia from its emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle. Due to migration and imperial expansion, it grew to include many other primarily Afro-Asiatic -speaking communities, including Amhara , Oromos , Somalis , Tigray , Afars , Sidama , Gurage , Agaw and Harari , among others. One of the early kingdoms to rise to power in the territory was the kingdom of D'mt in the 10th century BC, which established its capital at Yeha. In the first century AD the Aksumite Kingdom rose to power in the Tigray Region with its capital at Aksum and grew into a major power on the Red Sea , subjugating Yemen and Meroe and converting to Christianity in the early fourth century. The Aksumite empire fell into decline with the rise of Islam in the Arabian peninsula, which slowly shifted trade away from the Christian Aksum.
Our understanding of the history of the emperors who ruled over late medieval Ethiopia is still quite fragmentary but, as far as we can tell, life at their courts was marked by violence, betrayal, and power struggles.
Вначале все шло гладко. Халохот, по всей видимости, настоящий профессионал. Но потом появилась группа людей, и Халохот не смог завладеть искомым предметом. Фонтейн кивнул.
- Мне показалось, что я уловил в вашей речи бургосский акцент. Сам я из Валенсии. Что привело вас в Севилью. - Я торговец ювелирными изделиями. Жемчугами из Майорки.
Под вертикальной панелью она заметила еще одну с пятью пустыми кнопками. Шифр из пяти букв, сказала она себе и сразу же поняла, каковы ее шансы его угадать: двадцать шесть в пятой степени, 11 881 376 вариантов. По одной секунде на вариант - получается девятнадцать недель… Когда она, задыхаясь от дыма, лежала на полу у дверцы лифта, ей вдруг вспомнились страстные слова коммандера: Я люблю тебя, Сьюзан.
Он обедает там сегодня с одной из наших сопровождающих. - Ролдан понимал, что сейчас они скорее всего лежат в постели, но ему не хотелось оскорблять чувства звонившего. - Оставьте паспорт у администратора, его зовут Мануэль.
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