File Name: questions on digestive system in anatomy and physiology .zip
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The human digestive system, also known as the digestive tract, the GI tract, the alimentary canal is a series of connected organs leading from the mouth to the anus. The digestive system allows us to break down the food we eat to obtain energy and nourishment. The digestive system -- which can be up to 30 feet in length in adults -- is usually divided into eight parts: the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine or "small bowel" and the large intestine also called "large bowel" or "colon" with the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder adding secretions to help digestion. These organs combine to perform six tasks: ingestion, secretion, propulsion, digestion, absorption, and defecation. The mouth starts the process by ingesting and mechanically breaking down the food we eat into a swallowable form, adding some early secretions to start the process of digestion. The esophagus is the muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach. A ring-like muscle at the end of the esophagus controls the passage of food into the stomach.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion the tongue , salivary glands , pancreas , liver , and gallbladder. Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. The process of digestion has three stages: the cephalic phase , the gastric phase , and the intestinal phase. The first stage, the cephalic phase of digestion, begins with gastric secretions in response to the sight and smell of food. This stage includes the mechanical breakdown of food by chewing , and the chemical breakdown by digestive enzymes, that takes place in the mouth. Saliva contains digestive enzymes called amylase , and lingual lipase , secreted by the salivary glands and serous glands on the tongue. The enzymes start to break down the food in the mouth.
As adults, we know that a healthy digestive system is essential for good health because it converts food into raw materials that build and fuel our body cells. The organs of the digestive system can be separated into two main groups: those forming the alimentary canal and the accessory digestive organs. The alimentary canal, also called the gastrointestinal tract, is a continuous, hollow muscular tube that winds through the ventral body cavity and is open at both ends. Its organs include the following:. Food enters the digestive tract through the mouth , or oral cavity, a mucous membrane-lined cavity. The esophagus or gullet , runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach.
NCBI Bookshelf. The digestive system comprises the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs.
This presentation was prepared using draft rules. Other than the intestines and the stomach, the following are also part of the digestive system: The role the teeth play in food processing needs little introduction; we masticate, or chew, by opening and closing our jaws and moving them from side to side while continuously using our tongue to move the food between our teeth. B: Parietal cells produce HCl. Answer the question s below to see how well you understand the topics covered in the previous section. All of these are functions of the tongue. It begins in the stomach, where some small, lipid-soluble molecules, such as alcohol and aspirin, can diffuse through the stomach epithelium into the circulation.
The function of the digestive system is to break down the foods you eat, release their nutrients, and absorb those nutrients into the body. Although the small intestine is the workhorse of the system, where the majority of digestion occurs, and where most of the released nutrients are absorbed into the blood or lymph, each of the digestive system organs makes a vital contribution to this process [link]. As is the case with all body systems, the digestive system does not work in isolation; it functions cooperatively with the other systems of the body.
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