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Verbal And Non Verbal Communication Pdf

verbal and non verbal communication pdf

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Communication is a sum of all the things a person does while interacting with others and it is a bridge of meaning. Communication involves continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.

Four Types of Verbal Communication

Communication is a sum of all the things a person does while interacting with others and it is a bridge of meaning. Communication involves continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. Fisher stated that a person can influence others by the means of behaviour and through communication only this influence can be created upon other employees. Communication is a process by which individuals share and exchange their feelings, ideas, thoughts and cooperate with others in an organization.

Verbal communication refers to the use of words for communication purposes. It comprises both oral and written communication. Written communication channel includes executive memos, letters, company newsletters, e-mails, Web pages, bulletin board postings, manuals, and reports. Oral communication channel refers to telephonic conversations, face-to-face meetings, speeches and presentations, videoconferences, etc.

Nonverbal communication typically refers to hand and body movements, gestures, facial expressions, physical appearance, artifacts, space, etc. In other words, nonverbal communication refers to the behavioral aspect of communication, both intentional and unintentional. Communication can be broadly classified into two categories:. A common misconception held by many is that verbal communication is less ambiguous than nonverbal communication.

This, however, is not the case. Words often have more than one meaning ascribed to them. Hence, they have different meanings in different context. Verbal communication basically centers around the following:. Familiar versus Unfamiliar Words :.

The cardinal rule of effective communication states — communicate to express, not to impress. The best way to achieve this is through the use of everyday words for constructing the message. Familiar words have clear meanings and are used in day-to-day conversations. However, we need to remember that the words that seem familiar to the sender need not be familiar to the receiver; hence, the choice of words is highly subjective.

Choosing words from everyday conversation ensures that the message reaches the receiver correctly and quickly. Hence, instead of using exultant, use happy. Similarly, prefer angry to livid Joy to euphoria, try to endeavor, do to perform, find out to ascertain, and gives to generates.

This, however, is a general guideline and not a hard-and-fast rule. You are free to use unfamiliar and difficult words if they are more appropriate to the context of the message. It is important to remember not to overwork the more difficult words. An interesting case in point is a letter sent to US President Franklin Roosevelt by the director of civil defense, which was to be forwarded to the Federal Works Agency.

Such preparation shall be made as will completely obscure all Federal buildings and non-Federal buildings occupied by the Federal Government during an air raid for any period of time from visibility by reason of internal or external illumination. Such obscuration may be obtained either by blackout construction or by terminating the illumination. Roosevelt, however, rewrote the text and sent the following memorandum:. Tell them that in buildings where they have to keep the work going to put something over the windows; and in buildings where they can let the work stop for a while, turn out the lights.

Long versus Short Words :. Another important rule of effective communication is to keep it short and simple. This can be achieved through the use of short words. Short words are under two syllables and are easier to understand than their longer counterparts.

Hence, instead of using enormous, use huge. Similarly, prefer opening to inauguration, end to terminate, use to utilize, help to assistance, rush to expedite, and salary to remuneration. However, not all short words are easier to understand.

The key is NOT to use a string of long words, for that will hamper the decoding process. Below is an excerpt from an actual end-term question paper administered to a batch of MBA students. It clearly illustrates how long and unfamiliar words make for difficult comprehension:. Particulars and pieces of the provocation and pulmonary tumult and their thought-outs are set out in Schedule A. Thereafter following from your survey and study, ensuing and unfolding is entailed a critique and contribution, patterned and programmed to provide —.

As illustrated in Exhibit 1. Connotative meaning refers to the nuances of a particular word in addition to its literal meaning. As a result, the connotation of a word varies from one person to the other.

Exhibit 1. Hence, connotative words are more susceptible to be misunderstood as compared to denotative words. For example —. Positive Connotation — Sameera loves to discuss. Additionally, a word has several meanings associated to it, which form a network of associations in the mind.

The expressiveness of language does not come from denotative words. It comes from the connotation, nuances, and associations of the word. Hence, when we think of home, it makes us think of safety, security, warmth, and comfort. For instance, a hut, a shack, a cabin, a villa, a mansion, a manor, and a palace are all places of residence, but each evokes a different association in the mind.

It is also useful to remember these networks of associations while encoding the message. So if your receiver is a fisherman, encode the message using words and metaphors related to fish, net, boats, sea, wind, etc. Similarly, when talking to a finance manager, use words such as investment, ROI, assets, liabilities, capital, budget, dividend, depreciation, etc.

Abstract versus Concrete Words :. Concrete words are used for specific objects, which can be perceived by one of our five senses. These objects are tangible and can be measured; for example, a desk, a chair, a computer, a vase, degrees, and German Spitz pup.

Abstract words, on the other hand, are used for emotions, concepts, feelings, events, and intangible elements; for example, love, justice, moral, freedom, symphony, and irony.

Certain words move within the gamut of concrete and abstract, with varying degrees of abstraction. A hierarchical arrangement of words, on the basis of their level of abstraction, is referred to as a ladder of abstraction. Abstract words are vague and bring ambiguity to the communication process.

For effective communication, therefore, it is necessary to use concrete words. For instance, consider the following sentences, with their abstract and concrete variations:. Abstract — I will give you the report as soon as possible. Concrete — I will e-mail you the report by tomorrow p.

Abstract — To excel in college, you will have to work hard. Concrete — To excel in college, you will have to attend all lectures, prepare notes, prepare for the lectures in advance, and complete several practice tests. Some messages, however, deal with abstract topics such as justice and democracy, which do not have an equivalent concrete substitute. However, it is possible to reduce the level of abstraction by employing any of the following five techniques:.

Abstract plus Abstract :. For instance, we can combine the word democracy with consensus, justice with fairness, and success with wealth to express our message more clearly. Metaphors :. A metaphor makes an implicit comparison between two ideas or objects, technically known as the tenor and the vehicle. For instance, the metaphor all the world is a stage compares the world to a stage. Consequently, the world which is the tenor takes on the characteristics of the stage which is the vehicle.

Metaphors not only are used in verbal communication but find a whole lot of application in HR, finance, and marketing. Similes :. For example, love is as blind as a bat. Take another example — The new VP Finance is as cunning as a fox.

Here, the VP Finance takes on the attribute of cunningness from the fox. If, however, we were to use a metaphor and remark that the new VP Finance is a fox, it would carry a completely different connotation. Personification :. Personification takes inanimate objects or abstractions and bestows them with human or animal characteristics. Personifications are used to make sentences more dramatic. Hence, you must watch against its overuse while encoding messages. Allusion :.

An allusion makes an indirect reference to a historical event, person, myth, incident, etc. In the latter, the boss is being compared to the Rock of Gibraltar. When using allusions, it is important to remember that the indirect reference should be familiar to the receiver.

For instance, if the receiver does not comprehend the meaning of Achilles heel or Rock of Gibraltar, the communicated message will undergo distortion, which will render the communication ineffective. Politically Incorrect Language :. Language is a powerful weapon! On the one hand, the words you use can build rapport, forge relationships, and establish credibility. On the other hand, the words can destroy old relationships, shred egos, and even drive people to mischief.

Verbal versus Non-verbal Communication

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Body language is the use of physical behavior, expressions, and mannerisms to communicate nonverbally, often done instinctively rather than consciously. All of your nonverbal behaviors—the gestures you make, your posture, your tone of voice, how much eye contact you make—send strong messages. In some instances, what comes out of your mouth and what you communicate through your body language may be two totally different things. When faced with such mixed signals, the listener has to choose whether to believe your verbal or nonverbal message. However, by improving how you understand and use nonverbal communication, you can express what you really mean, connect better with others, and build stronger, more rewarding relationships.

communicated without using any spoken or written word is known as nonverbal communication. Page Non-verbal Communication. It is usually understood.

Nonverbal Communication and Body Language

Non-verbal and Auditory Communication as a Base Language

Verbal communication include sounds, words, language, and speech. Speaking is an effective way of communicating and helps in expressing our emotions in words.

What is body language?

When people ponder the word communication, they often think about the act of talking. We rely on verbal communication to exchange messages with one another and develop as individuals. The term verbal communication often evokes the idea of spoken communication, but written communication is also part of verbal communication. Verbal communication is about language, both written and spoken. In general, verbal communication refers to our use of words while nonverbal communication refers to communication that occurs through means other than words, such as body language, gestures, and silence. Both verbal and nonverbal communication can be spoken and written.

Ведь он был пацифистом и не стремился к разрушению. Он лишь хотел, чтобы восторжествовала правда. Это касалось ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Это касалось и права людей хранить личные секреты, а ведь АНБ следит за всеми и каждым. Уничтожение банка данных АНБ - акт агрессии, на которую, была уверена Сьюзан, Танкадо никогда бы не пошел.

Он готов был спорить на что угодно, хоть на собственную жизнь, потому что ясно представлял себе весь сценарий.


  1. Donnie N.

    28.05.2021 at 09:19

    Communication is the process of transferring message which happen with or without words.

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