File Name: womack and jones 1996 lean thinking .zip
The application of lean thinking has made a significant impact both in academic and industrial circles over the last decade. The resulting lack of definition has led to confusion and fuzzy boundaries with other management concepts. Summarising the lean evolution, this paper comments on approaches that have sought to address some of the earlier gaps in lean thinking. Linking the evolution of lean thinking to the contingency and learning organisation schools of thought, the objective of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding the evolution of lean not only as a concept, but also its implementation within an organisation, and point out areas for future research. Hines, P. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Report bugs here.
The term "Lean" was coined in by John Krafcik , and defined in by James Womack and Daniel Jones to consist of five key principles: 'Precisely specify value by specific product, identify the value stream for each product, make value flow without interruptions, let customer pull value from the producer, and pursue perfection. Insights relating to value streams , efficiency reduction of "waste" , continuous improvement and standardised products can most likely be traced back to the beginning of humankind. However, Fredrick Taylor and Henry Ford documented their observations relating to these topics, and Shigeo Shingo and Taiichi Ohno applied their enhanced thoughts on the subject at Toyota in the s. American industrialists recognized the threat of cheap offshore labor to American workers during the s, and explicitly stated the goal of what is now called lean manufacturing as a countermeasure. Henry Towne, past President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers , wrote in the Foreword to Frederick Winslow Taylor's Shop Management , "We are justly proud of the high wage rates which prevail throughout our country, and jealous of any interference with them by the products of the cheaper labor of other countries. To maintain this condition, to strengthen our control of home markets, and, above all, to broaden our opportunities in foreign markets where we must compete with the products of other industrial nations, we should welcome and encourage every influence tending to increase the efficiency of our productive processes.
In the expanded second edition of the landmark book Lean Thinking , the authors revisit the companies studied in the first edition to discover that the continuing application of lean thinking has permitted these firms to prosper. In the first of two new chapters, the authors track the trend in inventory turns — the lean metric that cannot lie — across all industries, singling out one industry for special praise. In this variety of companies and production environments, the authors find that lean thinking is more relevant than ever. In the second new chapter, the authors share what they themselves have learned about lean thinking and its successful application. For example, in updating the implementation Action Plan from the first edition, they add significant insights into the steps on value-stream mapping and spreading lean thinking to customers and suppliers. The Action Plan helps the reader develop and implement a lean conversion plan.
Concludes that breaking down barriers in the West will be difficult — because the joint analysis of every action along the channel will make every firm's costs apparent — excluding privacy. Kippenberger, T. Report bugs here. Please share your general feedback. You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here. You can also find out more about Emerald Engage.
By James P. Womack and Daniel T. Lean Thinking was first published in the fall of , just in time—we thought—for the recession of and the financial meltdown of Toward this end, it demonstrated how a range of firms in North America, Europe, and Japan took advantage of the recession of to rethink their strategies and embark on a new path. In our presentations to industrial audiences, we often point out that the only sure thing about forecasts is that they are wrong. Which is why lean thinkers strive to reduce order-to-delivery times to such an extent that most products can be made to order and always try to add or subtract capacity in small increments. Instead of a recession in , the most ebullient economy of the entire twentieth century charged ahead for five more years, into , extending a remarkable era in which practically anyone could succeed in business.
When we presented our evidence, we feared the industrial equivalent of an immune reaction, in which managers in other regions and industries would reject lean techniques as irrelevant to their circumstances or impossible to implement. Instead, we discovered that we were battering down an open door. We encountered scores of managers in industries as diverse as aerospace and construction who told us that they were adopting lean techniques—techniques for relentlessly and continuously eliminating waste from an operation. Those claims were mostly wishful thinking. When we looked more closely, we found plenty of just-in-time delivery systems that involved nothing more than the relocation of inventories from the company we were visiting to the next company upstream.
Lean production transformed manufacturing. During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating?
Какого черта, - промычал он себе под нос. Под его ногами была потайная дверь, почти неразличимая на полу.
Затем он одним движением швырнул ее на пол возле своего терминала. Сьюзан упала на спину, юбка ее задралась. Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь. Она в ужасе смотрела, как он придавливает ее к полу, стараясь разобрать выражение его глаз. Похоже, в них угадывался страх. Или это ненависть. Они буквально пожирали ее тело.
Неужели она узнала. Этого не может. Стратмор был уверен, что предусмотрел. - Сьюзан, - сказал он, подходя ближе. - В чем .
Я срочно уезжаю. Вернусь завтра. И уже утром мы сможем поехать. В нашем распоряжении будет целых два дня. - Но я уже забронировала номер, обиженно сказала Сьюзан.
Хейл хмыкнул. Сьюзан уже привыкла к агрессивному поведению Хейла.
Он увидел пятна света. Сначала слабые, еле видимые на сплошном сером фоне, они становились все ярче. Попробовал пошевелиться и ощутил резкую боль. Попытался что-то сказать, но голоса не .
Абсолютно. Такая красивая женщина пошла бы с этим типом, только если бы ей хорошо заплатили. Боже .
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