File Name: violence against prisoners of war during world war one and two .zip
It also led to transnational, global systems of captivity. This article will assess prisoner treatment throughout the war in a variety of theatres, looking at capture, the construction of camp systems, prisoner labour, humanitarianism, mistreatment, prisoner identity and repatriation and argue that, although standards varied, the overall trend was towards increased state control and modernization. The changes to the structure, operation and meaning of the prisoner of war camp that occurred after , particularly in western Europe encapsulated the important major societal transitions that the war brought, in particular with regard to technology, governance and gender identity. As the war went on, state intervention became the norm as governments were increasingly forced to intervene in prisoner affairs to ensure the most efficient allocation of prisoner labour in the home front war economy and to enforce basic standards in military-run prisoner camps. Gender norms were challenged by all-male camp environments where men could no longer easily define their masculinity through the alterity of the female presence, lacking daily contact with women. Although this was also the case at the front, men at the front were only in the trenches for short periods, encountering women behind the lines; in contrast, male prisoners had very little chance to speak with women. Despite their importance, however, only recently have First World War prisoners of war become the subject of historical study, with the first scholarly histories appearing since the s, by Annette Becker , Uta Hinz , Richard Speed, Reinhard Nachtigal , Alon Rachamimov, Oksana Nagornaja , Giovanna Procacci and Heather Jones among others.
A prisoner of war POW is a non-combatant —whether a military member, an irregular military fighter , or a civilian —who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from the enemy combatants still in the field releasing and repatriating them in an orderly manner after hostilities , demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes , exploiting them for their labour , recruiting or even conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as prisoners of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved. Typically, victors made little distinction between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although they were more likely to spare women and children.
The conditions under which POWs were captured differed enormously in terms of housing, food, disciplinary rules, medical treatment, social and cultural facilities. Usually, the men were segregated not only according to their military ranks, but also to ethnic, social and religious criteria. South Asian prisoners were exposed to intensive propaganda. In Germany they also became the target of scholarly interest when German anthropologists and linguists carried out studies in camps. With the "cultural turn" in First World War studies, the focus of research has shifted from predominantly military questions to a greater interest in the social and cultural aspects of the war. At the same time, there is greater engagement with the global dimensions of the conflict, particularly the responses to and experiences of the war in non-European regions, colonies and dominion territories.
Studying the POW during WWI history started during the war and continues to this day. In the first part of the book, H. Jones discusses violence against World War. 2. To analyze the position of prisoners of war in German camps. 3. To study.
They were forced to engage in the hard labour of constructing railways, roads, airfields, etc. About 36, were transported to the Japanese Mainland to supplement the shortage of the work force, and compelled to work at the coal mines, mines, shipyards, munitions factories, etc. By the time the war was over , a total of more than 30, POWs had died from starvation, diseases, and mistreatment both within and outside of the Japanese Mainland.
One of its most important legacies was the reordering of the map of Africa roughly as it is today. The First World War was essentially a quarrel between European powers which involved Africa, both directly and indirectly, because at the outbreak of hostilities the greater part of it was ruled by the European belligerents. Mor e than a million African soldiers were involved in these campaigns or campaigns in Europe. Even more men, as well as wome and children, were recruited, often forcibly, as carriers to support armies whose supplies could not be moved by conventional methods such as road, rail or packanimal.
The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties , and three additional protocols , that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term Geneva Convention usually denotes the agreements of , negotiated in the aftermath of the Second World War — , which updated the terms of the two treaties, and added two new conventions. The Geneva Conventions extensively defined the basic rights of wartime prisoners civilians and military personnel , established protections for the wounded and sick, and established protections for the civilians in and around a war-zone.
- Если бы в игрушке Стратмора завелся вирус, он бы сразу мне позвонил. Стратмор человек умный, но о вирусах понятия не имеет. У него в голове ничего, кроме ТРАНСТЕКСТА. При первых же признаках беды он тут же поднял бы тревогу - а в этих стенах сие означает, что он позвонил бы. - Джабба сунул в рот кусочек сыра моцарелла. - Кроме всего прочего, вирус просто не может проникнуть в ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Слушай, сопливый мозгляк. Убирайся отсюда немедленно, или я вырву эту булавку из твоих ноздрей и застегну ею твой поганый рот. Парень побелел. Беккер попридержал его еще минутку, потом отпустил. Затем, не сводя с него глаз, нагнулся, поднял бутылки и поставил их на стол. - Ну, доволен.
Пока старик собирался с мыслями, Беккер не произнес ни слова. Тот огляделся вокруг, указательным пальцем разгладил усы и наконец заговорил: - Что вам нужно? - Он произносил английские слова немного в нос. - Сэр, - начал Беккер чуть громче, словно обращаясь к глуховатому человеку, - я хотел бы задать вам несколько вопросов. Старик посмотрел на него с явным недоумением. - У вас какие-то проблемы.
Росио уверенно, по-хозяйски вошла в спальню. - Чем могу помочь? - спросила она на гортанном английском. Беккер не мигая смотрел на эту восхитительную женщину. - Мне нужно кольцо, - холодно сказал .
Мистер Беккер! - послышался голос.
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