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Bilingual And Esl Classrooms Pdf

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Bilingual and ESL Classrooms PDF

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Adebola Adebileje. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. These are a the transitional or early exit model; b the developmental or late-exit model and c the two-way or dual immersion bilingual education model.

Nigeria seems to practice the transitional or early exit modelwhich emphasises English language development and academic learning using native language instruction to enable learners be at par with their peers academically and acquiring English at the same time.

This is the model being promoted by the NPE where children are taught with their mother tongues until they get to primary four before English is introduced. Asubstitute for bilingual education is the "English immersion" method. This is a model that does not use the student's native language as a medium of teaching English. This is English as a second language ESL instruction which allows students to receive supplementary lessons in English. At a time, this model was practised in Nigeria when undergraduates of English were sent to England for a year to experience a kind of 'immersion' with native speakers.

In recent times, studies have revealed that the teaching of language proficiency has now extended focus from grammatical skills to functional use of language in different contexts. Furthermore, there are several types of English-only model such as structured or sheltered immersion modelwhere a simplified form of English is used, hence,the mother tongueis used minimally or not at all; and the submersion or "sink or swim" model where native and foreign students are placed in the same class and at the same level.

However, Snow recognises two different dimensions of language proficiency in bilinguals: contextualized and decontextualized language skills. Contextualized language skills requires the use of language in face to face communicative settings while decontextualized language skills does not involve language use in context.

This implies that the two language skills are self-determining which further suggests that ability in relational language use does not guarantee the ability to use the language in academic situations. This view seems to confuse the task of understanding bilingual ability.

This explains why some parents are of the view that the use of two languages willrather compound learners' academic problems. But, Zentella from his studies allays such fears when he explains that learners are "adept at shifting from one language to the other depending on the language situation".

Their use of two languages allows them to code switch in order to "take advantage of the richness of the communicative situation… and to establish and regulate the social boundaries of the two worlds".

Incomplete bilingualismIn this pattern, 'complete' according to him indisputably describes bilingualism as a stage where the fluency and competence in both languages are of native standard while 'incomplete' representssomeother stages of fluency. However, some aspects like phonetics, vocabulary, grammar, syntax etc.

He posits that complete bilingualism could be attained in two different ways: artificial and natural ways. In other words, the second language L2 is learnt in a kind of "artificial" environment such as school, language courses, self-study etc.

Normally "artificial" bilingualism begins from the age of seven and the learner could acquire the second language by means of any kind of study. Kornakov submits that the challenge actually sprouts from here as the artificial way of acquiring L2 gives rise to the question of "so-called language abilities or capacities".

The language teacher is regarded as the central figurewhomay lack the native fluency in the foreign or L2 language, and the new tongue is learnt far from the required language environment. The L2 learner is exposed to short and structured lessonsin classes quite different from the real practical activity typical of the natural way of acquisition.

He concludes that the real cause of errors in the use of L2"lies not in a lack of certain language abilities but in something else, when L2 itself is not a means or tool, but just the aim".

On the other hand, Kornakov opines that natural acquisition of L2 means that the second language is acquired without special or artificial studies, for example, in a bilingual family. With the natural way of attaining bilingualism, the individual needs to come into contact with other L2 users to communicate and be in contact.

Hence, L2 in this case is seen as a kind of a tool and not a goal. L2 is acquired directly in a linguistic environment through contact with native speakers performing a common activity or action, such as playing, cooking or washing who serve as "models" to be copied by the learner.

With the natural way of L2 acquisition, the learner is acquainted with the second culture, customs, realia and traditions, while the artificial school way simply does not provide enough time and means to ensure that this occurs. The inter-language interference in that case is unilateral: from the mother tongue towards the L2 only. In the case of the natural process interference occurs in both directions. He further distinguishes between natural and artificial acquisition lucidly thus: Natural acquisition is characterised by a greater tolerance towards the errors made by the learner because the attention is focused on the message or content what was said and not on the form how it was said.

In school, the attention is focused on the errors which create additional troubles, difficulties and psychological barriers for learners and the sanction or punishment for these kinds of mistakes is represented in the form of lower or bad marks or credits pp.

Advantages of natural bilingualism: i both languages L1 and L2 are more stable grammatically than in the case of artificial bilingualism, especially if the second language is not used for a significant time; ii one of the languages needs or requires more time to be "forgotten"; iii at the phonetic and phonological levels either language is, again, more stable and provides the native fluency in both, and iv native fluency acquired in a natural environment is better for the career of the professional translator because of the "time-factor": translators have enough and almost unlimited time to "convert" the written message in L1 into the equivalent message in the L2 or vice versa, which gives them plenty of room to perceive the whole message in the first language, analyse it, compare it with the draft translation and to produce the requested message in the second language in its final version Kornakov, Disadvantages of natural bilingualism over artificial bilingualism: i it is very difficult and sometimes impossible to change the phonetic accent if the L2 was acquired from a specific dialect environment for example,Yoruba accent in English when the bilingual English-Yoruba is conversing in English ; ii it is difficult and sometimes impossible to eliminate the dialect vocabulary if the L2 was acquired from a specific dialect environment for example, an Ekiti or Ondo speaker of English exhibits some peculiarities in the pronunciation of some English words ; iii it is difficult and sometimes impossible to eliminate the dialect grammar patterns and models typical of one specific dialect or country for example, the Yoruba language is basically a humanistic language and language of respect.

The language, consistent with the ethics of an African Yoruba philosophy, humanizes persons and social beings in situations of discourse. Apart from being basically effective, it builds learners' sense of pride in the useof their mother tongues and empowers them to manoeuvre the English language while retaining thebond with their cultural and linguistic inheritance.

In addition, bilingualism boosts learners' sense of identity which is also strongly linked to the language and culture of their family and heritage. Dreifus discovers from her research that the way a monolingual processes language is quite different from the way a bilingual does.

According to her, bilinguals "manifest a cognitive system with the ability to attend to important information and ignore the less important". This system where the brain sorts through all and brings out the most important is frequently used by bilinguals; this results into their being more efficient in other cognitive tasks.

Another study reported by Dreifus shows that bilinguals that have normal aging process function better cognitively than their monolingual counterparts. They are able to conclude that "the collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain's executive function-a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks".

Outside the school, a child who can handle two languages possesses a heightened ability to monitor the environment Bialystok and Martin-Rhee Petitto of Gallaudet University in her findings confirms that bilingualism is an extraordinary microscope into the human brain as she uses a form of brain imaging to observe young brains in the process of first experience with language.

The study shows that bilinguals have "increased neural activity when they react to completely unfamiliar languages even at the end of their first year".

It can also be described as dual language performance by an individual or individuals covering all stages starting from Bloomfieldian native-like control of two languages and the minimal knowledge of a second language. It should be noted that each of these languages has its own distinct phonological, lexical, grammatical and discourse rules. Since Nigeria is an example of a bilingual community, it therefore has individual bilinguals, people who speak only Igbo and English, Hausa and English, Yoruba and English, Efik and English etc.

Notwithstanding, linguists have emphasised that bilingualism was and still is the explanation for the failure of certain group of children. It has been argued that bilingualism is counterproductive to the child's welfare to develop and maintain proficiency in more than one language.

Many people now recognize that these ideas are based on problematic assumptions about language proficiency. For example, how is bilingualism measured and how can its effects be identified on academic development. There are a number of hypotheses about influence on children's achievement in school.

They are as follows: lack of exposure to the school language target language , linguistic mismatch between home and school, cultural mismatch between home and school and factors associated with social-economic status, etc. Hence, varieties of English occur as a result of such factors as cultural, political, economic etc.

The implication is that the existence of such varieties of English poses difficulty to the second language learner, but when learned, it enhances his effective use of the language. Again, as a result of the afore-mentioned factors, there have been cases of confused linguistic allegiance and the interference phenomena. In terms of the first, a second language learner is faced with the task of acquiring communicative competence in a language that belongs to a totally different family and culture.

Here, if the learner comes from a "well educated" family, he misses out completely the emotional make-up in the mother tongue. There are reported cases of the interference of the mother tongue on English which could be phonological, lexical and syntactical. The interference of mother tongue affects the learner's performance in the target language.

The regional variations in English in Nigeria are embedded mainly in the spoken form of the language. The greatest influence on the pronunciation of English by Nigerians is from the sound systems of the regional languages. According to , most of the phonetic characteristics in the English of Nigerians can be traced to the transfer of features from their local languages. This is one of the problems Nigerians have as mother tongues intrude into the target language.

The multi-lingual nature of the Nigerian society leads to many regional variations in their use of English because the different local languages have their accents directly or indirectly transferred to English. So, we have majority speaking the Nigerian English NE as it can be tagged, with different accents.

The term 'Nigerian English' has come to be recognized and accepted as referring to a legitimate sub-type of English, which is peculiar to Nigeria.

Nigerian English thus, has several 'lects' which according to Bamiro are referred to as the polylectal speech situation in Nigeria. Three main varieties of English have been identified in Nigeria: a the higher variety acrolect , which is the internationally intelligible variety; b the intermediate variety mesolect , which is the intranationally accepted variety; and c the lower variety basilect , which is the 'context' variety associated with illiterate and semi-literate population.

As earlier mentioned by each local or regional variety of English in Nigeria has its own characteristics especially in phonology and lexis. Certain pronunciations are identified with members of an ethnic group and when all or most of the markers of the group's accents are present in a particular speaker, one can be fairly certain that the speaker in question is a member of that ethnic group by birth or by upbringing, or both.

Members of several ethnic groups residing in adjacent parts to one another in the country share many characteristics in their spoken English. In this way, Yoruba speakers of English tend generally to be easily identified by their common ways of pronouncing certain English consonants and vowels and by the rhythm of their speech.

MethodologyThe observation method is used by the researcher in order to ascertain teacher's actual use of language during teaching as well as learners' competence in English. Randomly selected ten 10 junior and senior secondary schools acrossOgun state were observedfor eight 8 weeks.

Ogun State's population is predominantly Yoruba. Learners, in their numbers were seen repeating their teachers' errors while some actually exhibited fairly good command of English. Most Yoruba speakers of English do not make this distinction because it does not exist in the Yoruba language. Some other phonological variations in English are due to Yoruba dialectal interference.

Also, they do not have a good grasp of English phonetics as some were not trained English teachers. On this, Ubahakwe contends that in a language contact situation such as exists in Nigeria, it is to be expected that there will be an interaction between the local languages and English which leads to regional variations of the second language English.

The influence of the local languages on English is more relevant here -in that the patterns of the languages phonological, lexical and grammatical tend tobe transferred into English.

For instance, direct transfer was observed such as'I hear the smell'. The word 'hear' is a literal translation of Yoruba word 'gbo' which means 'hear'. Sometimes, the translation is indirect, for example, 'they went inside inside' they went into the most interior part. Other grammatical errors observed which may have been caused by interference included syntactic innovations such as direct transfer, reduplication, substitution, omission of function words, and insertion of discourse particles: At the levels of code-mixing and code-switching, it was observed that teachers do not have good command of English, the medium of instruction, in both junior and secondary schools and resort to using the mother tongue to express themselves.

The following are observed structures produced by teachers and students in classes:'wanbi, what did you tell your father lana?

Bilingual and ESL Classrooms pdf

Bilingual and ESL Classrooms. Carlos J. Wiley - Afterword by Eugene E. Now in its 6th Edition, this classic text integrates theory and practice to provide comprehensive coverage of bilingual and ESL education. The text covers the foundations of bilingual and ESL education and provides a strong focus on what the teacher needs to know in a bilingual classroom. Bilingual and ESL Classrooms is written for both preservice and experienced educators serving grades pre-K through 12—mainstream, bilingual, ESL, and special education teachers, as well as administrators, school counselors, and educational policymakers.

Bilingual and ESL classrooms: teaching in multicultural contexts

The text covers the foundations of bilingual and ESL education and provides a strong focus on what the teacher needs to know in a bilingual classroom. And this is how food fuels us. It improves our language with a really amazing way. The books we read-build our language step by step.

There are more than 61, English Learners ELs speaking more than different languages in Pennsylvania. Title 22, Chapter 4, Section 4. The goal of language instruction educational programs LIEPs is to facilitate the development and attainment of English proficiency and academic achievement of students whose native or first language is not English.

Creating a positive learning environment is important for supporting the growth of all students. Most elementary teachers try to establish a sense of community in their classrooms and provide structures such as predictable routines, procedures, and expectations. Because beginning ELLs may not initially understand verbal cues, predictable structures are even more significant in order to reduce anxiety, foster feelings of safety and comfort, and orient them to classroom expectations. Classroom patterns and predictable structures also aid language development.

Bilingual and ESL Classrooms PDF

Bilingual and ESL Classrooms

 - Что ты думаешь об этом не поддающемся взлому алгоритме, который, по словам Танкадо, он хотел создать. У Сьюзан свело желудок. Она подняла голову. - Не поддающийся взлому алгоритм? - Она выдержала паузу.

 ARA обслуживает в основном американских клиентов. Вы полагаете, что Северная Дакота может быть где-то. - Возможно.  - Стратмор пожал плечами.  - Имея партнера в Америке, Танкадо мог разделить два ключа географически.


Download Bilingual and ESL Classrooms pdf: Now in its 6th Edition, this classic text integrates theory and practice to provide comprehensive.


Definition of English Language Development (ELD)

Соши прочитала снова: - …Искусственно произведенный, обогащенный нейтронами изотоп урана с атомным весом 238. - Двести тридцать восемь? - воскликнула Сьюзан.  - Разве мы не знаем, что в хиросимской бомбе был другой изотоп урана. Все вокруг недоуменно переглянулись. Соши лихорадочно прогоняла текст на мониторе в обратном направлений и наконец нашла то, что искала. - Да.

Фонтейн погрузился в раздумья. Джабба терпеливо ждал, наконец не выдержал и крикнул ассистентке: - Соши. Немедленно. Соши побежала к своему терминалу. Джабба нередко прибегал к ВР, что в компьютерных кругах означало виртуальная реальность, но в АНБ это сокращение имело несколько иной смысл - визуальная репрезентация.

Стратмор - человек гордый и властный, наблюдение за ним следует организовать так, чтобы никоим образом не подорвать его авторитета. Из уважения к Стратмору Фонтейн решил заняться этим лично.

Между шифровалкой и стоянкой для машин не менее дюжины вооруженных охранников. - Я не такой дурак, как вы думаете, - бросил Хейл.  - Я воспользуюсь вашим лифтом. Сьюзан пойдет со .

Educating English Learners

Эти слова повергли Сьюзан в еще большее смятение. Шифровальный алгоритм - это просто набор математических формул для преобразования текста в шифр. Математики и программисты каждый день придумывают новые алгоритмы.

 Увы, я не знаю, как это делается. Я вызвал скорую. Беккер вспомнил синеватый шрам на груди Танкадо. - Быть может, искусственное дыхание делали санитары.

Протиснуться здесь могли в крайнем случае только пешеходы, проехал бы мопед. Беккер когда-то сам заблудился в его узких проходах.

4 Comments

  1. Imunlereads

    31.05.2021 at 07:20
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  2. Leala B.

    01.06.2021 at 08:59
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    Download Bilingual and ESL Classrooms: This classic text integrates theory and practice to provide comprehensive coverage of bilingual and.

  3. Takara C.

    01.06.2021 at 20:59
    Reply

    The text covers the foundations of bilingual and ESL education and provides a strong focus on what the teacher needs to know in a bilingual classroom.

  4. Minachurchtis1992

    05.06.2021 at 02:51
    Reply

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