File Name: introduction to news gathering and writing .zip
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media newspapers , newsmagazines , broadcast news radio and television , and more recently the Internet online newspapers , news blogs , news videos, live news streaming, etc.
Some of the first news circulations occurred in Renaissance Europe. These handwritten newsletters contained news about wars, economic conditions, and social customs and were circulated among merchants.
The first printed news appeared by the late s in German pamphlets that contained content that was often highly sensationalized. Several papers followed in the s and s. However, it did not have permission from the government to be published and was immediately suppressed.
In , Benjamin Franklin began writing a new form of newspaper that was more satirical and more involved in civic affairs than previously seen. Zenger was found not guilty, largely in part to his attorney Andrew Hamilton, who later wrote a paper in which he argued that newspapers should be free to criticize the government as long as it was true.
Later, with the ratification of the Bill of Rights in , freedom of the press would be guaranteed by the First Amendment. In the s, newspapers started seeking commercial success and turned toward reportage. This began with the New York Sun in Advancements in technology made it cheaper to print newspapers and "penny papers" emerged. These issues sought out local news and coverage of society.
Later, news-gathering became a central function of newspapers. With the invention of the telegraph in , the " inverted pyramid " structure of news was developed. By the end of the century, modern aspects of newspapers, such as banner headlines, extensive use of illustrations, "funny pages," and expanded coverage of organized sporting events, began to appear. Also, media consolidation began with many independent newspapers becoming part of "chains". The early s saw Progressive Era journalists using a new style of investigative journalism that revealed the corrupt practices of government officials.
These exposing articles became featured in many newspapers and magazines. The people who wrote them became labeled as "muckrakers". They became very influential and were a vital force in the Progressive reform movement.
However, after muckraking declined. During the s, radio became a news medium, and was a significant source of breaking news. Although, during World War I, radio broadcasts in America were only given information about Allied victories because Great Britain had a monopoly on the transatlantic radio lines.
For the newspapers, the government suppressed any radical or German papers during and after the war. With the introduction of the television came The Communications Act of It was an agreement between commercial television and the people of the United States that established that: The airways are public property; Commercial broadcasters are licensed to use the airways; The main condition for use will be whether the broadcaster served "the public interest, convenience, and necessity.
Television news continued to expand during the s, and by , more than half of American homes had cable systems and nationally oriented newspapers expanded their reach.
With technological advancements in the newsroom, notably the Internet, a new emphasis on computer-assisted reporting and a new blending of media forms emerged, with one reporter preparing the same story in print, online, and on camera for a newspaper's cable station.
A "medium" plural "media" is a carrier of something. Common things carried by media include information , art, or physical objects. A medium may provide transmission or storage of information or both. The industries which produce news and entertainment content for the mass media are often called "the media" in much the same way the newspaper industry is called "the press ".
In the late 20th century it became commonplace for this usage to be construed as singular "The media is The term press comes from the printing press of Johannes Gutenberg in the sixteenth century and which, from the eighteenth century, was used to print newspapers, then the only existing journalistic vehicles.
From the middle of the 20th century onwards, newspapers also began to be broadcast radio news and television news. The advent of the World Wide Web brought with it online newspapers, which then expanded to include online news videos and online streaming news in the s. The use of the term "press", however, was maintained. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals programs to a number of recipients "listeners" or "viewers" that belong to a large group. This group may be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public.
Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music worldwide, while a public address system in for example a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc soundbites to a small population within its range. The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule.
Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting or cable , often simultaneously. By coding signals and having decoding equipment in homes, the latter also enables subscription -based channels and pay-per-view services. A broadcasting organization may broadcast several programs at the same time, through several channels frequencies , for example BBC One and Two.
On the other hand, two or more organizations may share a channel and each use it during a fixed part of the day. Digital radio and digital television may also transmit multiplexed programming, with several channels compressed into one ensemble. When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. Broadcasting forms a very large segment of the mass media. Broadcasting to a very narrow range of audience is called narrowcasting.
In a broadcast system television , journalists or reporters are also involved with editing the video material that has been shot alongside their research, and in working on the visual narrative of the story. Broadcast journalists often make an appearance in the news story at the beginning or end of the video clip.
In television or broadcast journalism , news analysts also called news-casters or news anchors examine, interpret, and broadcast news received from various sources of information. Anchors present this as news, either videotaped or live, through transmissions from on-the-scene reporters news correspondents. News films "clips" can vary in length; there are some which may be as long as ten minutes, others that need to fit in all the relevant information and material in two or three minutes.
News channels these days have also begun to host special documentary films that stretch for much longer durations and are able to explore a news subject or issue in greater detail. The desk persons categorise news stories with various formats according to the merit of the story. A newspaper is a lightweight and disposable publication more specifically, a periodical , usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special interest, and may be published daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly, or quarterly.
General-interest newspapers are usually journals of current news on a variety of topics. Those can include political events , crime , business , sports , and opinions either editorials , columns , or political cartoons. Many also include weather news and forecasts. Newspapers increasingly use photographs to illustrate stories; they also often include comic strips and other entertainment, such as crosswords.
A story is a single article, news item or feature , usually concerning a single event , issue, theme , or profile of a person. Correspondents report news occurring in the main, locally, from their own country, or from foreign cities where they are stationed. Most reporters file information or write their stories electronically from remote locations. In many cases, breaking stories are written by staff members, through information collected and submitted by other reporters who are out on the field gathering information for an event that has just occurred and needs to be broadcast instantly.
Radio and television reporters often compose stories and report "live" from the scene. Some journalists also interpret the news or offer opinions and analysis to readers, viewers, or listeners. In this role, they are called commentators or columnists. Reporters take notes and also take photographs or shoot videos, either on their own, by citizens or through a photographer or camera person. In the second phase, they organize the material, determine the focus or emphasis identify the peg , and finally write their stories.
The story is then edited by news or copy-editors U. The headline of the story is decided by the news desk, and practically never by the reporter or the writer of the piece. Finally, a collection of stories that have been picked for the newspaper or magazine edition , are laid out on dummy trial pages, and after the chief editor has approved the content, style and language in the material, it is sent for publishing. The writer is given a byline for the piece that is published; his or her name appears alongside the article.
This process takes place according to the frequency of the publication. News can be published in a variety of formats broadsheet , tabloid , magazine and periodical publications as well as periods daily, weekly, semi-weekly, fortnightly or monthly. A newsmagazine , sometimes called news magazine , is a usually weekly magazine featuring articles on current events. News magazines generally go more in-depth into stories than newspapers, trying to give the reader an understanding of the context surrounding important events, rather than just the facts.
A newsreel was a documentary film common in the first half of the 20th century, that regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. Online journalism is reporting and other journalism produced or distributed via the Internet. The Internet has allowed the formal and informal publication of news stories through mainstream media outlets as well as blogs and other self-published news stories.
Journalists working on the Internet have been referred to as J-Bloggers, a term coined by Australian Media Academic Dr Nicola Goc to describe journalists who [blog] and [blog]gers who produce journalism. Many news organizations based in other media also distribute news online. How much they take advantage of the medium varies. Some news organizations use the web only or primarily. The Internet challenges traditional news organizations in several ways.
They may be losing classified ads to Web sites, which are often targeted by interest instead of geography. The advertising on news web sites is sometimes insufficient to support the investment. Even before the Internet, technology and perhaps other factors were dividing people's attention, leading to more but narrower media outlets. Online journalism also leads to the spread of independent online media such as openDemocracy and the UK, Wikinews as well as allowing smaller news organizations to publish to a broad audience.
Live online streaming journalism began on various online platforms in the late s, such as youtube. Tea accounts are a rising class of social media accounts on YouTube , Twitter , and Instagram that report on the latest news and gossip on the internet.
While mainstream news outlets often fail to report news on influencers and internet celebrities, tea accounts have capitalized on this opportunity to meet the great demand for such news stories. By covering news, politics, weather, sports, entertainment, and vital events, the daily media shape the dominant cultural, social and political picture of society.
Beyond the media networks, independent news sources have evolved to report on events which escape attention or underlie the major stories. In recent years, the blogosphere has taken reporting a step further, mining down to the experiences and perceptions of individual citizens.
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media newspapers , newsmagazines , broadcast news radio and television , and more recently the Internet online newspapers , news blogs , news videos, live news streaming, etc. Some of the first news circulations occurred in Renaissance Europe. These handwritten newsletters contained news about wars, economic conditions, and social customs and were circulated among merchants. The first printed news appeared by the late s in German pamphlets that contained content that was often highly sensationalized. Several papers followed in the s and s. However, it did not have permission from the government to be published and was immediately suppressed.
The Purdue Owl:. Kershner Pearson, K37 , on the 3rd floor. Select a newsworthy story. Your goal is to give a timely account of a recent, interesting, and significant event or development.
There is evidence that training children how to use pictures in association with text affects the strategies they use in reading and also improves learning. Abstract This research article explores the meaning of new media and their advantages and disadvantages in news gathering and reporting. Proper grammar and punctuation will be covered in a separate EDIS publication. Start studying Chapter 13 News Gathering and Reporting. Job prospects are fairly bleak as many news organizations are cutting back staff and reducing hiring.
They are meant to be truthful, unbiased, and informative. This webtext is an overview of the necessary skill sets to be successful in journalism, specifically, gathering information through interviews and asking the right questions. Readers will also learn how to organize that information and turn it into written work that includes unbiased writing, credible sources, and proper structure.
Выключите ТРАНСТЕКСТ! - потребовала. Остановка поисков ключа Цифровой крепости высвободила бы достаточно энергии для срабатывания дверных замков. - Успокойся, Сьюзан, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку ей на плечо. Это умиротворяющее прикосновение вывело Сьюзан из оцепенения. Внезапно она вспомнила, зачем искала Стратмора, и повернулась к. - Коммандер. Северная Дакота - это Грег Хейл.
Мы выполняем свою работу. Мы обнаружили статистический сбой и хотим выяснить, в чем. Кроме того, - добавила она, - я хотела бы напомнить Стратмору, что Большой Брат не спускает с него глаз. Пусть хорошенько подумает, прежде чем затевать очередную авантюру с целью спасения мира. - Она подняла телефонную трубку и начала набирать номер.
- Через пятнадцать минут все страны третьего мира на нашей планете будут знать, как построить межконтинентальную баллистическую ракету. Если кто-то в этой комнате считает, что ключ к шифру-убийце содержится еще где-то, помимо этого кольца, я готов его выслушать.
Обернувшись, они увидели быстро приближавшуюся к ним громадную черную фигуру. Сьюзан никогда не видела этого человека раньше. Подойдя вплотную, незнакомец буквально пронзил ее взглядом.
- Танкадо оставил нам только один выход-признать существование ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Такая возможность. Последний шанс.
15 утра. Акт безжалостного уничтожения. Бесчувственная демонстрация силы страной, уже добившейся победы. С этим Танкадо сумел примириться.
На экране за его спиной светилось сообщение, уже хорошо знакомое Сьюзан. Текст, набранный крупным шрифтом, точно на афише, зловеще взывал прямо над его головой: ТЕПЕРЬ ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА ВВЕДИТЕ КЛЮЧ_____ Словно в кошмарном сне Сьюзан шла вслед за Фонтейном к подиуму. Весь мир для нее превратился в одно смутное, медленно перемещающееся пятно. Увидев их, Джабба сразу превратился в разъяренного быка: - Я не зря создал систему фильтров. - Сквозь строй приказал долго жить, - безучастно произнес Фонтейн.
He знаю. Но уж определенно не здесь! - Он улыбнулся. - Может, все-таки чего-нибудь выпьете.
- Кто будет охранять охранников. Иными словами - кто будет охранять Агентство национальной безопасности, пока мы охраняем мир. Это было любимое изречение, которым часто пользовался Танкадо.
Ну давай. Окажись дома.
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