File Name: ideology of pakistan and two nation theory .zip
In in Lahore Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the man who founded Pakistan, gave a seminal speech setting out the need for a separate state for Muslims on the subcontinent. Prior to the division of India in , Hindus and Muslims had lived together across the country.
Eerie logic by author. Naresh 4 years ago Reply Author Mr. Muhammad Anwar : Had Muslims been treated equally in undivided India, Muslim nationalism might not have emerged so strongly. In addition Mr. Jinnah had promised Sharia Law to the Muslims! Grateful for your reply. With typical Chanakya politics you made a fool of Radcliffe and took away Gurdaspur which was part of Pakistan.
During the struggle for political independence in India, the Two-Nation Theory emerged, which meant that two nations - Hindus and Muslims - inhabited the subcontinent. Their cultural differences increased, so much so that the Hindus adopted Hindi in Devanagari script as their language and the Muslims accepted Urdu in Naskh and Nastaliq script as their language. Since no formula for sharing political power could be evolved between the two, the Muslim majority areas separated and Pakistan came into being as the homeland of the Muslims. Islam, and not on common language, race or territory. Similarly, Urdu is their national language, although it is not the spoken language of any province of Pakistan.
Pakistan Studies was introduced in the national curriculum as a compulsory subject in by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. It was introduced as a compulsory subject almost in a panic by the Bhutto regime soon after the country lost a war with India in and consequently its eastern wing East Pakistan. This scholarly nuance, inspired by the ideas of the nation-state introduced by the British Colonialists, gradually evolved into becoming a pursuit to prepare a well-educated and resourceful Muslim middle-class in the region. Eventually, with the help from sections of the Muslim landed elite in India, the emerging Muslim middle-classes turned the idea into a movement for a separate Muslim homeland comprised of those areas where the Muslims were in a majority in India.
The two-nation theory means that the Hindus and the Muslims are two different nations. On the basis of two-nation theory the Quaid-i-Azam demanded the partition of India into two states, a Muslim state to be called Pakistan and the other Hindu India that is Bharat.
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan had historically consisted of multifaceted junctures under the rubric of populism which had found existence in religion and civil-military relations, influencing the political discourse in the country. The two-nation theory made the Islamic ideology central to the existence of Pakistan, making the Quranic teachings and Sunnah important for the ruling dispensation to be legitimised Majid, Though himself a non-sectarian practicing Muslim with a staunch belief in justice for all sects of Islam and religions Awan, , Md. Historically decisive, populism has manifested itself in the social contract wherein religion and disproportion in society together with fortitude for territorial sovereignty were employed to commence a mission grounded in cultural uniqueness and spiritual nationalism. However, the underpinning of the project was bereft of premeditated programmes and a nourishing essence, leaving behind a country attempting to construct a unifying principle amidst divergences in the society. A beneficiary of Cold War bloc system with assistance from countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom, Pakistan received recognition and acceptability as a sovereign entity eager to participate as a strategic partner in the Cold War bi-polar world order. With a frivolous political system, a splintered social contract and the demise of former Prime Minister Jinnah, populism attempted to find a unifying principle to achieve facilitation in order to promote the established territorial project termed as Pakistan.
The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims were not confined to the struggle for political supremacy, but were also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a thousand years, they continued to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, are all poles apart.
The two-nation theory is an ideology of religious nationalism which significantly influenced the Indian subcontinent following its independence from the British Empire. According to this theory, Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations, with their own customs, religion, and traditions; therefore, from social and moral points of view, Muslims should be able to have their own separate homeland outside of Hindu-majority India, in which Islam is the dominant religion, and be segregated from Hindus and other non-Muslims. The ideology that religion is the determining factor in defining the nationality of Indian Muslims was undertaken by Muhammad Ali Jinnah , who termed it as the awakening of Muslims for the creation of Pakistan.
The ideology of Pakistan is Islam. The ideology of any nation reflects the ideals and aspirations of its people, and religion and cultural shape, their thinking which binds them together. An ideology in the positive sense is a system of beliefs, values, ideas, convictions, institutions, goals and a body of knowledge which a people considers true, binding and practicable. Ideologies tend to arise in the times of crises and social stress.
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